Diagnose Sick Cannabis Plants | Marijuana Nutrient Problems & Symptoms by Picture

Hesi Canna Mills Nutrients

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#1
Use the following pictures to quickly and easily diagnose sick marijuana plants! peace

Copper Deficiency



Problem: A cannabis copper deficiency appears with leaf symptoms such as dark leaves
that take on blue or even purple undertones. The tips and edges of leaves turn pale yellow
or white in stark contrast to the rest of the leaves which have turned dark. In flowering
it's important to correct a cannabis copper deficiency as soon as possible because buds may
stop maturing if the plant isn't fixed up right away. Copper doesn't move easily through the
plant and is considered "low-mobile" which means the yellowing leaves might not necessarily turn green again, but the problem should stop spreading to new marijuana leaves.
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Cannabis Copper Deficiency Symptoms

Leaves turn dark with blue or purple undertones
Tips and edges of leaves turn bright yellow or white
Shiny or metallic sheen on leaves
Leaves may feel stiff and start turning under
Tends to affect leaves directly under the light
Buds do not ripen, or grow very slowly

The pale tips of a cannabis copper deficiency look a little different from nutrient burn,
which may start out with slighly yellow tips, but soon makes tips appear brown or burnt.
This is what the yellow leaf tips of a cannabis copper deficiency looks like.
The most telling feature of a copper deficiency is that the rest of the leaf darkens and
takes on a blue or purple cast which makes the yellow tips look bright in comparison.
The leaves also often appear shiny and may feel stiff.
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Some strains are prone to copper deficiencies in the flowering stage, which can create dark
purple or reddish hues in the leaves directly under the lights. The following picture shows
a Blue Widow plant where all the leaves under the light turned purple due to too-bright
light and incorrect pH triggering a copper deficiency.
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A cannabis copper deficiency tends to affect the leaves directly under the light.
If your grow light is close it may help to move lights a little further away.
A big problem with a major copper deficiency if it happens early in the flowering stage,
is the affected leaves are not good at photosynthesis and won't provide nearly as
much energy for the buds as they would if they were green. It's important to keep leaves
near the buds healthy during the majority of the flowering stage to help ensure you get the
best yields possible. While it's normal for leaves to start dying in the last week or two
before harvest, you should react quickly if you're seeing unhealthy leaves earlier than that!
It is very unlikely that there is no copper available in your water or soil,
so usually a copper deficiency in cannabis is caused by a pH problem at the roots that is
restricting access to nutrients.
Copper toxicity (too much copper) in cannabis plants is rare, though a severe case of
too much copper can cause a quick death to the plant.

Solution For Cannabis Copper Deficiency

1.) Adjust pH to Correct Range

The most common reason growers will see copper marijuana deficiencies is when the pH at the
roots is not in the correct range. Copper tends to get locked at certain pH levels,
and is better absorbed by the plant in a slightly acidic root environment.
If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a copper deficiency due to incorrect pH,
flush your system with clean, pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly
nutrients. This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of copper and
help restore pH to the proper levels..
Watch to make sure that the problem starts to clear up within a couple of days.
Old growth may not recover, but new growth should be healthy.

In soil, copper is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 7.0 pH range
In hydro, copper is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.5 pH range

2.) Give the Right Nutrients

The truth is, most cannabis growers don't need to add more copper in response to a copper
deficiency! In fact, most growers have actually already given plenty of copper to their
cannabis plants since it is found abundantly in most tap water. If you're using quality soil
or cannabis-friendly nutrients, you probably don't need to worry about adding more copper.
In general, copper deficiencies are more likely to appear when a grower is using heavily
filtered or reverse osmisis (RO) water to feed plants since any copper has been removed,
but pH is a much more common reason growers see copper deficiencies in their cannabis plants.

3.) Take Good Care of the Roots

Copper deficiencies can show up with the plant is having root problems or if the plant
is overwatered, even if the pH is right and the copper is there. Proper watering practices
help plants grow healthy and avoid a host of problems!

4.) Watch for Leaf Recovery

After going through all the above steps, watch to make sure that the copper deficiency
starts to clear up within a few days to a week or so. The damaged leaves may not completely
recover all their green, but you know you're in the clear when you stop seeing symptoms
appearing on new leaves.
 
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#2
Calcium Deficiency

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Problem: Calcium is an important nutrient which helps provide structure to the cannabis
plant and helps it withstand stress like from heat.
A cannabis calcium deficiency can sometimes be difficult to diagnose since calcium deficiencies are often accompanied by magnesium, iron, and/or other cannabis deficiencies.Calcium moves relatively slowly through the plant (it is a semi-mobile nutrient), which means it tends to "stay put" after it's been given to a leaf.
Because of this, calcium deficiencies tend to show up in newer growth (upper leaves) and middle vegetative growth.
Screenshot_1.png

Calcium Deficiencies Appear on Relatively New Leaves

Calcium deficiencies tend to appear on newer or growing leaves,
which means calcium deficiencies first appear on leaves where there's rapid vegetative growth.Some of the most noticeable signs of a calcium deficiency will appear on newer or growing leaves which may display:

Dead spots
Crinkling
Spotting / Mottling
Small brown spots
Stunted growth
Small or distorted new leaves
Curled tips
Leaf die-off
Affected leaves may appear dark green besides the spots

Here's a close-up of a calcium deficiency that appeared on leaves towards the top of a cannabis plant grown in coco coir:
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Other Symptoms of Calcium Cannabis Deficiency

If a cannabis plant is affected by a calcium deficiency for too long,
it may begin to show the following symptoms due to the lack of calcium.

Stems become weak or flimsy and may crack easily
Stems become hollow or show inner signs of decay
Plant does not stand up well to heat
Flowers/buds do not develop fully, or development is slow
Roots appear weak or under-developed
In severe calcium deficiencies, parts of roots may even die off or turn brown. Roots are more susceptible to root problems like slimy root rot
Cannabis tends to like high levels of calcium, so it is unusual to feed too much calcium when using normal amounts of nutrients and/or regular soil. There are not many known cases of cannabis calcium toxicity (too much calcium),however too much calcium can cause the plant to lock out other nutrients, so it's important not to go overboard..

Calcium deficiencies are more likely to appear when...

Grower is using filtered or reverse osmisis (RO) water to feed plants - the amount of calcium found in tap water varies, but some tap water has enough calcium to prevent calcium deficiencies.Growing cannabis in hydroponics with nutrients that don't supplement
calcium or when growing in water that has less than 6.2 pH
Growing cannabis in coco coir that hasn't been supplemented with calcium or below 6.2 pH
When growing in soil or soilless growing medium that hasn't been supplemented with calcium (usually from dolomite lime) or is acidic (below 6.2 pH)
Too much potassium can also sometimes cause the appearance of a calcium deficiency
Outdoors - calcium deficiency is more likely to appear in acidic soil (below 6.2 pH)
Screenshot_3.png
Different strains of cannabis tend to have different nutrient problems.
Some cannabis strains (or even specific plants) tend to use much higher levels of calcium than others, and so you may see calcium deficiency problems with one plant even when all the other plants (which are getting the same nutrients and environment) aren't showing any signs of deficiency.
Solution For Calcium Deficiency in Cannabis

Your cannabis plant may show signs of a calcium deficiency if the pH at the roots is too high or too low. That is because when the pH of your root zone is off,your cannabis cannot properly absorb calcium through its roots. Therefore the first step is to ensure that you have the correct pH for your growth medium.
Please note: After a calcium deficiency is cleared up, the problem
(brown spots and unhealthy new leaves) will stop appearing on new growth,usually within a week. Please note that leaves which have been damaged by a calcium deficiency will probably not recover or turn green, so you want to pay attention to new growth for signs of recovery.

In soil, calcium is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.2 - 7.0 pH range
(in soil, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 6.0 - 7.0,
but calcium specifically tends to be best absorbed above 6.2)
In hydro, calcium is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.2 - 6.5 pH range
(in hydro, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 - 6.5,
but calcium specifically tends to be best absorbed above 6.2)

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a calcium deficiency, flush your system with clean, pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes calcium. This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of calcium and help restore pH to the proper levels..
To supplement with extra Calcium... (it's very rare to give a cannabis plant too much calcium, however, too much calcium can lock out other nutrients so don't go overboard)
Calcium, magnesium, and iron deficiencies often appear together in cannabis.Many growers decide to purchase some sort of Calcium-Magnesium (often called Cal-Mag) supplement for their grow room in case this common deficiency appears. After supplementing with Cal-Mag and correcting the pH,you should expect to see new healthy growth within a week. Remember,the old leaves will probably not recover, but new growth should be green and healthy.
 
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#3
Dying Spot on Buds-Bud Rot or Mold

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How to Prevent & Stop Bud Rot (quick summary)

Air circulation - Make sure there’s always plenty of air moving over all the buds and leaves,and through the plant. This can take careful planning.Don’t let plants get cold, if possible - Temperatures warmer than 68°F (20°C)help prevent fungus spores from germinating.
Avoid wetness - Don’t allow buds to sit in damp or overly humid conditions for long.Bud rot is a fungus, and like all fungi, it needs a wet place to germinate.
Remove all affected buds - Carefully remove and discard all buds with bud rot,as well as nearby buds - this is incredibly important if you don’t want to lose the whole harvest! Don't let anything any of the rot touch other parts of your plant.
Table of Contents

What Does Bud Rot Look Like?

What Causes Bud Rot?

How does the Botrytis fungus get to my plants?
How Do I Control Bud Rot?

Prevention
Treatment

What Does Bud Rot Look Like?

Usually a bud rot infection becomes visible in just certain parts.
Sometimes just the bigger and more dense buds are affected, but other times you'll get patches all over the plant, especially after a few rainy days.You may see areas on the colas where everything (buds, pistils and/or leaves) are darkening,becoming discolored and/or drying up, unlike the rest of the plant.
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The deadened spots usually stand out and catch people's attention,
even if growers don’t know what’s wrong, they often instinctively know that something is wrong since the spots don't look like the rest of the buds on the plant.In addition to the rot itself, you may see white mold on the outside of the bud at first - this is the first stage and it means plants need to be treated immediately!
With advanced bud rot, the bud will easily separate so you can see inside.When the bud in question is inspected, it will be dark on the inside,usually gray or brown, and possibly dusty (this "dust" is fungus spores).Depending on the life stage, bud rot can look…

white and fluffy
dark gray or brown (sometimes even dark purple)the buds can be full of dark speckled dust which easily blows away (fungus spores)

Different Stages of Bud Rot - Catch it Early!

When plants are afflicted by cannabis bud rot, it starts as fluffy white
growth in the middle or sides of buds, but the white mold quickly darkens into gray or brown and burrows deep into dense buds as the fungus takes hold.Sometimes you'll see the initial stage on the sides of buds, giving you a possible chance to catch the infection early.
The Botrytis fungus looks white and fluffy in its initial stage,
but you'll probably never even see this stage before the mold quickly darkens and starts rotting the buds from the inside out
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Once bud rot has taken hold over parts of a cannabis plant,
the buds can sometimes look almost the same on the outside, at first,
but they usually start looking like they're dying in patches. Often the area will dry out and easily pull apart. The inside of buds can turn brown, gray or even purple.
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Some growers might think these drying spots mean that the plant is almost ready for harvest,but you know something is definitely wrong when just parts of the colas are being affected.
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What Causes Bud Rot?

Cannabis bud rot is caused by a type of fungus known as Botrytis cinerea.In cannabis plants, Botrytis causes buds to rot out from the inside, hence the name“bud rot.” If you crack open an infected bud, the inside will be a moldy dark gray or brown.
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Bud rot can show up in many ways. For example, this cola here responded to bud rot by turning purple and mushy. with leaves that becoming crispy and dying.This is what the grower came back to find after a few days of rain.Did you know? In addition to cannabis bud rot, Botrytis causes problems for many different types of plants, including wine grapes, strawberries and peonies.
Botrytis the fungus is sometimes referred to as "botrytis bunch rot," “botrytis blight,”“bud rot,” “grey mould” or “gray mold.”
When it comes to cannabis, it is often only called “Bud Rot” since that’s the main symptom cannabis growers are worried about.
Any part of the cannabis plant affected by bud rot should be discarded immediately! This helps prevent further infection and all buds touched by this toxic fungus should never be smoked or used.
Screenshot_7.png Throw Away All Buds with Any Sign of Bud Rot!
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This is What Bud Rot Looks Like Ground Up
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There are different stages of Botrytis as it matures and tries to release spores.An infection starts as fluffy white mold, and then spreads throughout the inside of vulnerable buds. The inside of those parts of the colas darken to gray or brown.
Once that has settled in, the mold tries to reproduce. The insides become filled with dark speckled dust that easily floats and spreads if the bud is cracked open.These are the spores of the fungus, so be careful to avoid breathing in letting this speckled dust ever touch other parts of your plants.Luckily, healthy cannabis plants will not develop bud rot unless exposed to stagnant air and cold, wet conditions for an extended period of time.

How does the Botrytis fungus get to my plants?
Bud rot is spread to plants by dusty gray spores, usually in wind or water.Most common ways Bud rot fungus spores get to plants

Wind

Rain Water
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If your plants are never exposed to these spores, they will never get bud rot.Unfortunately the spores can easily be carried to your plant by a breeze, rain,from contact with animals, or even by clones from another grow room.Dormant spores can survive in many conditions only to affect your crops another time!But... it's not so bad. The fungus will never germinate if you take good care of your buds.
And in any case, your plant needs a “wound” of some sort for the spores to take residence in your buds. Possible wounds that can let Bud Rot fungus in include cracks in the stem from wind or over-training, damage from caterpillars, snails, worms,white powdery mildew,
other pests and larva, or any other type of injury or weak point can the the point of entry for bud rot spores into the plant.Luckily, even if your plant has been exposed to spores.Nothing will be able to survive and begin the cycle of a bud rot infection if you provide
your cannabis with a warm, dry breezy environment.
Bud Rot needs cool, wet conditions and stagnant air to thrive.

What triggers spores to grow into a full-blown case of bud rot?
Cool Temperature
Cool temperatures (~60-70°F or 15-20°C) are ideal for spore germination
Wet Buds
Rainy weather, especially if it lasts for days in a row
High humidity
Any situation where buds remain wet for several continuous hours
Bad Air circulation
Lack of wind or air circulation over the top o through the inside the plant
Very leafy plants (which tend to collect water in between leaves, and prevent air circulation through the plant)
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Big Colas
Massive, dense colas have nice wet conditions on the inside which don’t get exposed to any air. This makes them a prime target for Botrytis bud rot. How to Control Bud Rot (these are most important!)
How to Prevent Bud Rot

These are the most important points to remember...Good air movement - Create good air circulation and make sure there’s always plenty of air
moving over all the buds and leaves.Keep plant warm, if possible - Temperatures below 68°F (20°C) creates the right environment
for fungus spores to germinate. Controlling temperature goes a long way.Avoid letting buds stay wet - Don’t allow buds to sit in damp or overly humid conditions for long. Protect your plants from rain and control the humidity.Remove all affected buds immediately - Carfully remove and discard all buds that have possibly been affected by bud rot. Don't let any rot touch other parts of your plant. This helps prevent bud rot from spreading.
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Other tips to help prevent bud rot...

Avoid plant wounds. Avoid injuring your plants, especially in the flowering stage.Don’t leave open wounds to seep out water and nutrients - cover any open injuries with tape or some other “cast” until injury closes up. Also avoid pests and keep plants healthy.
A healthy plant is much less susceptible to infections.
Defoliate leafy plants. Remove leaves on very leafy plants, but don't take too much.In fact you want to take off as few leaves as you can, especially if growing outdoors.
Only remove leaves that are covering or touching bud sites, as well as any leaves that are laying on top of each other. Your plant won't "mind" if you only remove leaves from leafy areas, and this prevents moisture from collecting into damp spots,while also improving air circulation around buds.
Watch out.

Watch plants closely for signs of bud rot in the late flowering stage,
especially on large or dense buds, and especially after cool, wet weather..When growing outdoors...Get a strain meant for your local weather. If you live in a place that has short summers
and gets cold or rainy early in the fall, don't get a strain that was developed near the equator!There are fast-flowering, cold-resistant cannabis strains which are designed for growing outdoors in cooler or more rainy climates. For example many auto-flowering strains
have quick lives - perfect for a short summer before the Autumn rain or frost.A good outdoor strain for those worrying about bud rot might be Auto Frisian Dew,an award-winning, mold-resistant strain made for outdoors. This strain goes from seed to harvest in about 12 weeks. Just plant seeds after the last frost in the Spring,then harvest 3 months later.
AutoFrisian Dew is resistant to fungus like bud rot. This strain is quick to harvest and will grow in any climate which has (at least) 3 warm summer months before it starts getting cold or raining.
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Breezy location - Try to plan your grow spot so your plants get a breeze,
but not too much wind. This can be tricky, and it may mean visiting the grow spot a few times before planting.
Protect your buds from rain. If you know there will be drizzly conditions,cover your plants with a tarp to protect them from most of the rain.Don't put tarp directly on plants or you'll hurt you buds. Install the tarp up above the plants, and make sure it's held up by the center part, that makes it so rain runs off the sides of the tarp instead of collecting in the middle.Shake plants. Some growers shake their plants on dewey mornings or after rain,so any water drops that form on the leaves don't become breeding grounds for spores.
Fungicides, Neem Oil & Burning Sulfur

In the flowering stage, never use fungicides, spray affected buds with Neem oil,or burn sulfer.These common tactics are not effective at stopping bud rot, and will make your buds taste, smell and look terrible.Some growers use fungicides made specifically for
Botrytis in the vegetative stage. But when it comes to cannabis,
fungicides can only be used as a preventative before any buds have formed.If you already have bud rot and can't fix your environment
(which is the best way to kill Botrytis), I highly recommend cutting your losses and taking down the plant.Most fungicides are not effective for bud rot. If you do plant to spray plants, it’s recommended to get one that’s specifically been developed to combat Botrytis. Any treatments for Bud Rot should be applied in the vegetative stage as a preventative.There's nothing you can spray on your plants after bud rot has already formed. Unfortunately, there aren't any effective fungicides or other treatments that are safe to use with cannabis in the flowering stage.
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How to Stop Bud Rot from Spreading

The inside of dense buds provide a great place for Bud Rot spores to grow,and that’s the main place you’ll find developed Bud Rot on cannabis plants. Once you've spotted bud rot, it's important to act immediately.As soon as even one part of a single bud starts showing signs of grey mold,the rot can spread to the rest of the cola and then to other buds on the plant. If triggering conditions (lack of airflow, heat, wetness) have not improved,a single point of infection can quickly ruin the harvest of an entire plant.

Never Spray Your Buds with Anything!

Bud Rot Removal

Immediately remove all rotted parts and nearby areas. The only way to stop the spread is to remove all signs of mold from the plant, then move plants to a warm,dry area with a nice breeze.
Be extremely careful not to let any rot touch any part of the rest of your plant.
What Happens Next?
You can either...
harvest the cannabis plant now let it continue to ripen
If your plant have been affected by bud rot, it means they need less dampness,drier air and warmer temperatures. If you can improve the environment, you can allow the plant to continue ripening after you've removed the infected buds.

Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Dark or Purple Leaves
Leaf Symptoms:
Spots
Abnormal Growth
Other Symptoms:
Mold
 
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#4
Boron Deficiency

Problem: A boron deficiency in cannabis is relatively rare, and is usually accompanied by other types of nutrient or pH problems that appear as problems with the leaves.The first signs of a cannabis boron deficiency is abnormal or thick growth tips along with brown or yellow spotting on new leaves.
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With a boron deficiency, upper cannabis leaves display abnormal and/or slowed growth.Growing tips may not grow properly, may display twisted growth, and may die off.
New leaves may wrinkle or curl.Plant roots can also be affected by a boron deficiency,showing unhealthy or slow growth. Stems may become rough or hollow.A plant with a boron deficiency may look like it has a calcium deficiency because boron is needed for the plant to properly use calcium. New growth is affected the most, and may look like it's been burnt or scorched.A boron deficiency is often accompanied by an apparent potassium or nitrogen deficiency,as these nutrients are needed for the plant to use boron.Boron deficiencies are more likely to appear when a plant is underwatered or experiencing very low humidity (very dry air).

Solution for Boron Deficiency in Cannabis

Note: Sometimes a cannabis boron deficiency (like all deficiencies)
can be triggered by stressful conditions and may clear up on its own
after the period of stress is over.

1.) Use Good Sources of Nutrients

Most cannabis growers don't need to add more nutrient.
In fact, most growers have actually already given plenty of boron to their cannabis plants,whether they meant to or not. If you're using quality soil or cannabis-friendly nutrients,you probably don't need to worry about adding more boron. Boron deficiencies are generally
more likely to appear when a grower is using heavily filtered or reverse osmisis(RO) water to feed plants, since boron is found in most tap water,but that's actually not the most common reason growers see boron deficiencies in their cannabis plants! As long as you're giving your plants a good source of nutrients,you probably need to...
2.) Adjust pH to Correct Range

But the reason most growers see boron deficiencies is because boron is best absorbed at lower pH ranges. When the pH gets too high, your plant may exhibit signs of a boron deficiency even if it's physically there near the roots.

Learn how to manage your pH when growing cannabis.

In soil, boron is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 6.5 pH range
(in soil, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 6.0 - 7.0,
but boron specifically tends to be best absorbed below 6.5).
In hydro, boron is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.2 pH range
(in hydro, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 - 6.5,
but boron specifically tends to be best absorbed below 6.2).

3.) Give Plants Enough Moisture

Boron is not absorbed well if there isn't enough moisture, for example if plant is underwatered or humidity is very low (below 25% relative humidity in the air).Proper watering practices will help prevent underwatering, and a humidifier may be needed to achieve the best growth if your grow room is very dry.

4.) Watch Leaves for Recovery

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a boron deficiency,
flush your system with clean, pH'd water that contains a regular dose of
cannabis-friendly nutrients. Old damaged growth will likely not recover.Watch plant over next few days to make sure that the problem stops spreading to new growth.

Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Pale Color Leaves
Dark or Purple Leaves
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Thick Growth Tips
Spots
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Abnormal Growth
Plant Symptoms:
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Root Symptoms:
Slow Growing
 
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#5
Iron Deficiency





Problem: A cannabis iron deficiency is usually seen first on bright yellow new leaves,
and the symptoms of a cannabis iron deficiency can sometimes appear alongside other
cannabis nutrient problems or deficiencies. An iron deficiency is usually caused by problems
with pH, though sometimes a cannabis iron deficiency can be triggered by a stressful environment
and may clear up on its own after the period of stress is over.
Screenshot_1.png
The main symptoms of a cannabis iron deficiency are:

Newest leaves are completely yellow when they first grow in

The bright yellow (almost white looking) color on new growth is the signature sign of an iron deficiency.
Sometimes the affected yellow leaves are so damaged they're beyond recovery.
Other times the yellow parts of the leaves may begin to turn green as the plant continues to grow, starting from the tips and moving in toward the base of each leaf.

Eventually an entire leaf can become green and relatively healthy looking, even though it started out completely yellow from an iron deficiency. The ability of yellow leaves to eventually turn green is another signature of an iron deficiency, because for most other
nutrient deficiencies any yellow leaves can't truly turn green again.

A cannabis iron nutrient deficiency can look similar to a magnesium deficiency,but an iron deficiency will affect newer/upper/inner leaves, where a magnesium deficiency affects older/lower leaves.
The following severe iron deficiency was actually caused by an outdoor grower using too much pure chicken manure as a fertilizer. Any time you use manure to fertilize your plants,remember a little bit goes a long way! Chicken manure tends to raise the pH of soil,
which is one of the prime triggers of an iron deficiency. In addition to changing the pH,the high level of nutrients contained in chicken manure may have interfered with iron uptake by the roots, causing further iron lock-out.
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Immediately after adding chicken manure and watering, the plant started producing bright yellow,almost white leaves that immediately dried up and died from the damage. Even though this plant
was showing the signs of an iron deficiency, the iron was available in the soil - the problem was that the plant just couldn't get access to the nutrients due to nutrient lock-out conditions.
In this case, grower needs to dig up the manure (since that is the real cause of this problem)& replant with good soil.

Solution For Cannabis Iron Deficiency

Note: Sometimes a cannabis iron deficiency (like all nutrient deficiencies) can be triggered by stressful conditions, and the plant may recover on its own after the period of stress is over.

1.) Adjust pH to Correct Range

Easily the most common reason growers will see an iron deficiency is if the pH at the roots is too high. Iron tends to get locked at at higher pH levels, especially when the pH is above 7.0, and iron deficiencies are more commonly seen in soil or coco coir than in hydro.

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a iron deficiency due to too-high pH,flush your system with clean, pH'd water. This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affecting the uptake of iron and help restore pH to the proper levels..

In soil, iron is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 6.5 pH range
(although it's generally recommended for soil growers to keep pH in the 6.0-7.0 range,iron tends to get locked out when the pH is higher, especially above 7.0)
In coco coir or hydro, iron is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.5 pH range.

2.) Give the Right Nutrients

The truth is, most cannabis growers don't need to add more iron in response to an iron deficiency!

In fact, most growers have actually already given plenty of iron to their cannabis plants since it is found abundantly in most tap water. If you're using quality soil or cannabis-friendly nutrients, you probably don't need to worry about adding more iron.

Iron deficiency symptoms caused by true lack of iron are more likely to appear when a grower is using heavily filtered or reverse osmisis (RO) water to feed plants since any iron has been removed. There are other nutrient problems that can trigger the symptoms of an iron deficiency,
for example problems with with calcium and magnesium, or an excess of copper can all lead to symptoms of an cannabis iron deficiency.

If you suspect you have a iron deficiency even though the pH is correct,
or if you believe your system is truly lacking in iron, you may want to consider flushing your system with clean, pH'd water (if on schedule, you can do this alongside a dose of your regular nutrients) and add a supplement that contains Iron, Calcium and Magnesium.
Cannabis loves Calcium and Magnesium, and they work hand and hand with Iron.
A Calcium-Magnesium supplement can help prevent all of these deficiencies from appearing.


3.) Take Good Care of the Roots
Iron deficiencies can show up with the plant is having root problems or if the plant is overwatered, even if the pH is right and the iron is there. Proper watering practices help plants grow healthy and avoid a host of problems!

4.) Watch for Recovery

After going through all the above steps, watch to make sure that the iron deficiency starts to clear up within a week or so (try to be patient since iron moves relatively slowly through the plant). The yellow leaves from before may not recover completely, especially if there was a
lot of damage, but when new growth is coming in green, you know you're good to go!

Leaf Color:
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - New Growth
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Small Inner Leaves Affected
Leaf Tips Die
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Abnormal Growth
Plant Symptoms:
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#6
Magnesium Deficiency


Problem: A light green or yellow coloring will begin to show on the veins and edges of the lower & older leaves - this is one of the classic signs of cannabis magnesium deficiency.

Magnesium is a mobile nutrient, which means that the plant can move it from old leaves to new leaves. If you don't react to it promptly, a cannabis magnesium defiency can spiral out of control and cause your plant to lose a lot of lower leaves quickly. The plant will pull magnesium out of older leaves and bring them to the newer leaves. That's why a magnesium deficiency usually appears towards the bottom of the plant and on older,
less important leaves.
Screenshot_1.png

The edges of the leaves may become yellow or bright green and may start feeling crispy to the touch. This crispiness around the edges is different from nutrient burn,which does not lighten the margins inside the leaves.Sometimes you will also get light brown spotting within the margins or along the edges if the problem continues to get worse,
though this may be partially other deficiencies, which often happen alongside a magnesium defiency.

Magnesium deficiencies are easy to prevent and fix once you know what to do. Read on below to learn how. Screenshot_2.png Screenshot_3.png Screenshot_4.png

Solution For Magnesium Deficiency in Cannabis

Your cannabis plant may show signs of a magnesium deficiency if the pH at the roots is too low,especially in hydro. That is because when the pH of your root zone is not in the correct range,your cannabis cannot properly absorb magnesium through the roots.

Often with this deficiency, the magnesium is present, but the roots cannot absorb the magnesium properly due to an improper pH. Therefore it is very important to maintain the correct pH
(and make sure the pH does get to low / acidic) in order to avoid a magnesium deficiency.

Growers using Coco Coir or Reverse Osmosis (RO) water usually need to supplement their plants with extra Calcium & Magnesium in addition to regular nutrients. Treating coco coir with Cal-Mag and supplying extra throughout your grow is recommended for grower in coco coir, or those using RO water.

Adding more magnesium to a system when there is a pH lock-out will probably not help because the plant will not be able to absorb any magnesium until the pH has been corrected. If there's
already enough magnesium, adding more can cause other apparent deficiencies by locking out other nutrients from the plant.

Please note: Once a magneisum deficiency is cleared up, the problem (yellowing lower leaves)

will stop spreading to other older leaves, usually within a few days. Please note that leaves

which have been damaged by a magnesium deficiency will probably not recover or turn green,

so you want to pay attention to other growth for signs of recovery.


In soil, magnesium is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 7.0 pH range(some growers say a 6.5 - 7.0 pH is best if you suspect a magnesium deficiency)

In hydro, magnesium is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 6.5 pH range(in hydro, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 - 6.5,but magnesium specifically tends to be best absorbed above 6.0)

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a magnesium deficiency, flush your system with clean,pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes magnesium.
This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of magnesium and help restore pH to the proper levels..

To supplement with extra Magnesium...

Calcium, magnesium, and iron deficiencies often appear together in cannabis.Many growers decide to purchase some sort of Calcium-Magnesium (often called Cal-Mag)supplement for their grow room in case one of these common deficiencies appear.

Listed below are common cannabis Calcium supplements,along below with some general information about each one. After supplementing with Cal-Mag and correcting the pH, you should expect to see
new healthy growth within a week. Remember, the old leaves will probably not recover,but new growth should be green and healthy.

Hand-watered grow - Flush the system with properly pH'ed water that contains a full set of proper nutrients that are suitable for growing cannabis. Make sure you are using the right nutrients for
the stage your plant is in. Check the pH of your runoff water to ensure that nothing in the growing medium is throwing off the root pH.

Hydro grow - Check the pH and PPM of your reservoir water to make sure that pH is on target and nutrient levels are not lower than expected. If you do this and are still not certain what
is causing the magnesium defiency, it is recommended that you drain your reservoir and refill with a newly mixed reservoir with fresh nutrients that has been pH'ed.

Adding extra magnesium is often not necessary if you are using tap water. However, you will likely want to supplement Cal-Mag if you are using filtered or reverse osmosis (RO) water,since most tap water already contains some amount of all 3 of these cannabis nutrients.
Cal-Mag also has a small amount or iron, which is another trace cannabis nutrient that is often missing in filtered water.


How long until new growth looks better? If you fix the root of the problem, further yellowing and discoloration of the leaves should stop almost immediately. Some of the effected leaves may recover somewhat, but what's most important is to make sure the problem isn't continuing to spread to other leaves on the plant.

I generally don't remove any discolored leaves until I know for sure that the problem is completely gone and is no longer spreading to new leaves (that way any possible further discoloration will happen to the leaves that have already been affected).

Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Brown or Dark Spots
Mottling / Mosaic Pattern
Leaf Symptoms:
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Die
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Spots
Mottling / Mosaic
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Leaves Curl Upwards
Wilting / Drooping
Plant Symptoms:
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Leaves Curl Upwards
Plant Wilting / Drooping
 
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#7
Nitrogen Deficiency


Problem: A cannabis nitrogen deficiency will cause the older, lower leaves on your plant to turnyellow, wilt away and eventually die.

The yellow leaves of a nitrogen deficiency may show signs of brown, and they will usually become soft and sort of "fold" in, before turning crispy and falling off on their own. Screenshot_1.png

If the yellowing leaves are at the top of your plant or the yellow leaves are mostly new growth,then you probably don't have a nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen deficiencies always affect the oldest,
lowest leaves first.

Nitrogen is a mobile nutrient, which means it can move throughout the plant as needed.Cannabis needs nitrogen to keep leaves green and make energy from light. All new leaves get plenty of nitrogen to make them green and help with photosynthesis. The leaves that get the most light are the newest, youngest leaves, so the plant "wants" to give those leaves priority for getting light. Screenshot_2.png


If new leaves aren't getting enough nitrogen, the plant will start to "steal" nitrogen from the older, lower leaves, so that it can give it to newer leaves. This is what causes the yellowing and wilting of a nitrogen deficiency.

Screenshot_3.png

It's relatively normal for your cannabis plant's leaves to start turning yellow towards the end of your flowering cycle as the plant becomes nitrogen deficient while creating buds.

However, if your cannabis plant is losing lower leaves fast due to yellowing(if yellowing and dying leaves is "climbing" up the plant from the bottom), especially in the vegetative stage before plant is making buds, you have a problem that you will need to fix as soon as possible.

You don't want a nitrogen deficiency in the vegetative stage!
Screenshot_4.png
If you notice your lower cannabis leaves turning yellow in the vegetative stage or in the beginning part of the flowering stage, your plant may be experiencing a nitrogen deficiency which will need
to be treated.

It is not good if your cannabis plant is showing signs of an advanced nitrogen deificiency while still in the vegetative stage. It's normal to lose a few yellow leaves off the bottom of your plant here and there, especially with very big plants. But if you are losing a significant
amount of yellow leaves, and the yellowing seems to be moving up the plant quickly,then you have a problem. Screenshot_5.png

As a grower, you're interested in how much nitrogen to give your plants at what time.The ratio of nitrogen to other nutrients has a huge effect on growth and bud formation.

Vegetative Stage - higher levels of Nitrogen (pretty much any plant food will do)

Most complete plant foods that you get at a gardening store contain high levels of nitrogen (N). These nutrient system tend to work well in the vegetative stage.
Flowering Stage - lower levels of Nitrogen (use "Bloom" or Cactus nutrients) It’s extra important to find a nutrient system with lower levels of nitrogen for the last part of
your plant’s life. Many “Bloom” or "Flowering" style base nutrients are just the ticket.

If you can’t order online and can't find a good one-part base Bloom formula locally,you do have other choices. Though not an ideal choice, most Cactus plant foods will contain good nutrient ratios for growing cannabis during the budding stage. So in a pinch, you can use the
cactus nutrients that can be found at most gardening stores.

The first cannabis plant pictured below is showing signs of nitrogen deficiency late in flowering;nitrogen deficiency in late flowering is completely normal and even desired. The last picture is an infographic about nitrogen and your marijuana plant.
Screenshot_6.png Screenshot_7.png

It's normal for plants to show signs of a nitrogen deficiency as the plant gets close to harvest.This is actually a good thing! Too much nitrogen can actually prevent proper budding,and can reduce the overall taste and smell of your plant. This is why all "bloom" and
flowering nutrient formulas are relatively low in nitrogen.

So don't sweat it if you see your cannabis show some signs of nitrogen deficiency late in the flowering stage! Relatively low levels of nitrogen in the late flowering stage helps promote proper cannabis bud development and will increase your yields!

Don't worry about yellow leaves close to harvest!
Screenshot_2.png


Solution: You can find many pre-mixed nutrients from the store which contain nitrogen or you could use nitrate of soda or organic fertilizer which are both good sources of nitrogen. In fact almost
all plant nutrients of any kind will include nitrogen. If you haven't been providing any nutrient to your plants, try supplementing your regular nutrients with a bit more nitrogen and see if the plant starts recovering.

If you've already been using nutrients, then you probably don't have a nitrogen deficiency.If you're seeing the signs of spreading nitrogen deficiency even a week or two giving nitrogen to your plants through nutrients, then you need to figure out what else is causing the yellowing
so you can stop it.

More About Nitrogen and Your Marijuana Plants

Sometimes you can get the signs of a cannabis nitrogen deficiency if the pH at the plant root zone is too low, even if the nitrogen is there. This is because when the pH at the roots is not right, your plant roots can't properly absorb nutrients. If you aren't sure about your root pH,
learn more about pH & growing cannabis plants...

Nitrogen is especially important during the vegetative stage of your cannabis plants.As your plants start flowering, they will need lower amounts of nitrogen.When looking at plant nutrients, you'll almost always see 3 numbers listed,like 3-12-6 or 5-10-5. These numbers represent the percentage of Nitrogen (N),Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) contained in the bottle. Just about all plant life on
Earth needs these 3 elements to grow.

Note: During the last few weeks before harvest, marijuana plants starts pulling all the remaining nitrogen from her leaves as part of the bud-making process. This causes yellowing leaves starting
towards the bottom of the plant. This is part of the natural flowering process and you don't need to fight it.You may notice that marijuana leaves are yellowing in almost all pictures of marijuana
plants with big buds that are close to harvest. You tend to get smaller yields from nitrogen-toxic plants with dark green leaves at harvest.

Remember: It's Normal For Marijuana Leaves To Start Turning Yellow As Harvest Time Approaches Screenshot_9.png


Leaf Color:
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Yellowing Between Veins
Leaf Symptoms:
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Yellowing Between Veins
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Wilting / Drooping
Plant Symptoms:
Old Leaves Dropping Off
 
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#8
Heat Stress



Problem: Your cannabis plant can only withstand a certain amount of heat and light.After a certain point, your cannabis will start exhibiting signs of stress on the leaves near the sources of light and/or heat. Your leaves will get yellow or brown brown spotting and may appear generally burnt in places when there's too much light.

Important for Hydroponic Growers! High temps can trigger root rot,
a serious problem that can kill your plants. Cannabis will also display heat stress when grown outdoors in hot, dry weather,especially when not given enough water.When the heat gets too high, the edges of the serrated leaves will begin to curl up even if there are no burns or other signs of light stress.
1.png
When the heat gets too high, the edges of the leaves will begin to curl up and the leaves will begin to "cup."


Heat Stress

2.png 3.png

Heat stress is even more damaging in the flowering stage since plant is no longer growing many new leaves. Indica-leaning strains are most prone to heat damage in the flowering stage. Heat damage
during budding will reduce your yields by demolishing many of your most important leaves,while also causing buds to grow airy with ugly foxtails. Even though the grow lights were turned off, this is what happened to an indica-leaning plant overnight after being exposed to 105°F (40°C) temperatures during heat wave.
4.png

Heat during the flowering stage also causes fox-tails, which are airy and don't have much substance to them. The plant is basically "abandoning" the original heat-damaged bud to try to make a sad new one.

Example of unwanted "fox-tailing" caused by too-much heat
Screenshot_1.png
Solution: Get a way to monitor temperature. Control heat by whatever means necessary using the steps outlined below.

Indoors,find a way to lower the temperature and/or increase the circulation in the grow room or grow area if heat is the problem. Having a small fan blowing over the tops of your plants
will help prevent hot spots from forming directly under your grow lights.You may consider removing grow lights further away from the tops of the plants if heat is a problem.When learning how to grow cannabis, it's best to try to keep things at a comfortable room
temperature at all times for optimal growth. If it's too hot for you, it's probably too hot for your plants.

When cannabis plants are recovering from heat shock,some growers recommend using seaweed kelp extract to help plants recover from the stress and possible even protect plants from heat stress in the future.
Many indoor setups will require that you vent out hot air using a fan and/or an exhaust system.By creating good suction with an efficient exhaust system and adding a carbon scrubber,
you can also pretty much scrub all smells from the grow room.
An oscillating fan will circulate air in the room as well as provide a gentle breeze for your plants, and a small one will cost less than $20.

Outdoors, you have less options to reduce heat during a heat wave, but you are able to monitor your local weather via weather forecasts.
It is possible to partially shield your plants when you know the temperature is going to get hot.You can also adjust your watering schedule to make sure plants at least have plenty of water.
Some things to try when you know the weather outside is going to be hot or dry: water plants in the evening or early morning to help prevent water evaporation during the hottest hours.
kelp extract for roots - provide a small amount of liquid fertilizer that contains seaweed kelp extract (can help protect against heat stress)
increase shade to reduce the heat experienced by plants - you can use an old sheet or other cloth as a short term solution, or get a profesionally made "Sun Shade Sail" which is made particularly
to create shade outdoors. It's important to remember that giving plants shade for more than a few days will make them less "hardened" to the sun, and you may need to reintroduce full sunlight
back slowly to prevent them from getting shocked from the light intensity. move potted plants - luckily with potted plants, it's usually easier to move them out of direct sunlight during a heat wave.
take extra good care of heat-stressed plants - when cannabis plants appear heat-stressed,try to baby them as best you can, and offer shade during the hottest days.When growing cannabis outdoors, it can often take a few weeks for plant to recover after a hot or dry spell, so prevention is the best medicine for outdoor plants.

Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Leaf Edges Appear Burnt
Leaves Curl Upwards
Wilting / Drooping
Plant Symptoms:
Leaves Curl Upwards
Plant Wilting / Drooping
 
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#9
Light Burn


Problem: Your cannabis plant can only withstand a certain amount of light. After a certain point,your cannabis will start turning yellow or otherwise exhibit signs of stress on the leaves near the sources of light and/or heat. Your leaves can get yellow or brown spotting, often with burnt tips/edges and margins that stay green. Other problems, like nutrient problems, will make the symptoms of light burn a lot worse. Leaves may also appear generally burnt in places when there's
too much light, especially when combined with heat.


How can there be too much light if there's no heat? Read the full guide
If you see light bleaching and unhealthy discoloration only on the parts of the plant directly under your grow light, it often means it's too bright for your plants and you should move your grow lights further away! If your plant is also having any other problems,it is much more likely to be affected by light burn.
Screenshot_1.png
Here's more cannabis light burn pics...

Light stress often first appears around the edges of leaves, while inside veins stay green.

Screenshot_2.png

This cannabis seedling is being burned by too-close LED grow lights
Screenshot_3.png


This cannabis seedling basically grew up into the grow light! The heat from the bulb caused massive burning everywhere it touched. If a plant's leaves directly touches the lights,it leaves "burns" from the heat of the bulbs.
Screenshot_4.png
This plant was green and healthy through the vegetative stage under an LED grow light,but the leaves started dying soon after flowering started.
It ended up that the LED was too close. Screenshot_5.png

These plants seem apparently healthy, but the top leaves keep getting lighter and lighter because the LED grow light was too close. If you don't realize it's light burn,the symptoms are inexplicable!

Screenshot_6.png

Light Bleaching Cannabis Buds

This is how you get "albino" buds. Light bleaching is most common with high-power LEDs and HPS lights that are kept too close to the tops of the plants. Basically, this is what happens when plants get too much light, kinda like how hair on top of your head can turn lighter if
you spend plenty of time in the sun, except a "sun-burnt" bud isn't as strong!
Screenshot_7.png
Screenshot_8.png
Screenshot_9.png



Buds which have been bleached tend to be low potency or even have no potency(no available THC or other cannabinoids). Therefore you should avoid light-bleaching your plants at all costs!
Screenshot_10.png
Sometimes light-bleached cannabis will get mis-labeled as “albino cannabis” or “white cannabis”but the truth is that the white color is not healthy, so this is not a desirable trait(even if it looks pretty cool).

Solution: If your marijuana plants are getting too much light, try removing some of the lights or moving your grow lights further away from the tops of the plants.It is unlikely for your plants to get "light-burned" from the sun when growing outdoors,and they definitely can't accidentally grow into the sun. Outdoor plants can show signs of light
stress if plants were used to shady conditions and moved into direct sunlight without time to get accustomed to the brigher light levels.When making changes to your plant's environment, it's best
to make changes slowly if possible. Slow gradual changes are best for preventing stress when growing indoors or outdoors.Sometimes heat stress can look like light stress. When learning how to grow cannabis, it's best to try to keep things at a comfortable temperature
at all times for optimal growth. If it's too hot for you, it's probably too hot for your plants. Outdoors, things can be a bit harder, but there are steps you can take to protect your outdoor plants from the heat. Learn more about cannabis heat stress.

Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Pale Color Leaves
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Leaf Edges Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Die
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Spots
Leaves Curl Upwards
Wilting / Drooping
Plant Symptoms:
Leaves Curl Under
Leaves Curl Upwards
Plant Wilting / Drooping
 
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#10
Nitrogen Toxicity


Problem: Dark green leaves, weak stems, and overall slow growth. Marijuana leaves that are nitrogen toxic often get "The Claw" or talon-like leaves that are bent at the ends. They also do an odd curving (or cupping) that is often mistaken for overwatering, but is unique to nitrogen toxicity. You can see a "clawing" leaf pictured to the right and more pictures below (click each picture for a close-up).
Screenshot_1.png

Many new growers accidentally their plants give too much Nitrogen, especially in the flowering stage.Your plant needs a lot of nitrogen in the vegetative stage, and it's generally hard to give too much as long as you're not going completely overboard with nutrients.
Nitrogen is a big part of what makes leaves green, and is incredibly important to the process of photosynthesis (making energy from light). But cannabis plants need relatively low levels of Nitrogen in the second half of the flowering/budding stage. While your plants still need N
(nitrogen) during flowering, too much N at this stage will prevent your plants from forming buds properly, resulting in lower yields, less potency and possibly inferior buds.
This is why it's important to avoid any type of "time-release" nutrients or soil (for example, standard Miracle-Gro soil) as they will keep giving your plant a lot of N even after its started flowering.When it comes to nitrogen, this is what your plant needs:

Vegetative Stage - higher levels of Nitrogen (pretty much any plant food will do)Most complete plant foods that you get at a gardening store contain high levels of nitrogen (N).These nutrient systems tend to work well in the vegetative stage.

Flowering Stage - lower levels of Nitrogen (use "Bloom" or Cactus nutrients)It’s extra important to find a nutrient system with lower levels of nitrogen for the last part of your plant’s life. Many “Bloom” or "Flowering" style base nutrients are just the ticket.

If you can’t order online and can't find a good one-part base Bloom formula locally,you do have other choices. Though not an ideal choice, most Cactus plant foods will contain good nutrient ratios for growing cannabis during the budding stage. So in a pinch, you can use the
cactus nutrients that can be found at most gardening stores.

Different strains react differently to nitrogen toxicity. Some plants get dark green leaves with no clawing. Some strains will get leaves that do the weird 90 degree bend at the tips,while other strains or individual plants start curling like claws and then turn yellow / brown
and fall off like a deficiency. Yet these are all signs of too much nitrogen.

Signs of Nitrogen Toxicity

Dark green leaves and foliage

Leaf tips may turn down, without signs of overwatering.

You may notice yellowing on the affected leaves or other signs of nutrient deficiencies as time goes on.

Nitrogen toxicity is often but not always accompanied by nutrient burn

The Claw often seems random, affecting leaves here and there

Heat and pH problems will make the clawing worse, as they stress out
the plant and lower her defenses, and cause her to drink more water (and uptake more N)

As time goes on, the claw leaves will eventually start turning yellow, getting spots, and dying.
Screenshot_2.png Screenshot_3.png Screenshot_4.png Screenshot_5.png Screenshot_6.png

Solution: Reduce the Nitrogen your plant is getting!

Reduce the amount of nitrogen that is being fed to the plants. If you are feeding extra nutrients,cut down that amount. If you are in the flowering / budding stage, make sure you're using a formula
that's specifically meant for flowering, or else it could have too much nitrogen.If you are not feeding extra nutrients, you may have "hot" soil that has been giving your plants extra nutrients. In that case, flush your plants with filtered, pH'ed water to help clear out the
extra nitrogen.Effected leaves likely won't recover, but you should see the problem halt with no new leaves being affected.

Wait! I'm not sure if it's Nitrogen toxicity!

Ok, you ruled out overwatering, now what?

When I first got started growing, everyone kept telling me that this particular kind of leaf clawing was caused by under or overwatering my plants, pH problems, or heat problems.
Yet in my case, I knew that it wasn't over or under watering (I was growing in hydro, where roots grow directly in water and air stones are constantly adding oxygen). I knew it wasn't pH(my reservoir water had the right pH) and I knew it wasn't heat since the grow area was slightly cooler than room temperature.

So then what was really causing my claw leaves?

It's understandable that other growers were mistaken. It is true that many stresses will make any other problem worse.
Plus overwatering can cause a similar kind of leaf clawing (learn more below).And if you do have nitrogen toxicity, than heat or pH problems will make the problem much worse.Now, you may or may not know that marijuana (or any plant) needs an element known as "Nitrogen"
to grow. In fact, nitrogen is one of the 3 nutrients that are included in almost every kind of plant food.When looking at plant nutrients, you'll almost always see 3 numbers listed,like 3-12-6 or 5-10-5. These numbers represent the ratio of Nitrogen (N),Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K) contained in the bottle. Just about all plant life on
Earth needs these 3 elements to grow.
The reason nitrogen is in all plant nutrient formulations is because it's vital to plant processes.For marijuana plants, when they don't get enough nitrogen, the bottom leaves start turning yellow
and dying. Left unchecked, a nitrogen deficiency can cause the whole plant to eventually die.However, this time we're the dealing with the opposite problem: nitrogen toxicity, or too much nitrogen.

Why You Should Treat And Prevent Nitrogen Toxicity

Marijuana plants that get too much Nitrogen in the vegetative stage don't grow as vigorously.

Too much nitrogen is especially harmful in the flowering stage, because this will cause your plant to produce much smaller buds.

If you react quickly and reduce your nitrogen levels at the first sign of toxicity,your plant will quickly recover.

Note: Some strains with the word "Claw" in the name tend to do The Claw more easily than others.

Problems with excess nitrogen are not common in the wild; it's a lot more common to see nitrogen toxicity on indoor plants, especially when overzealous growers go overboard with nutrients.
Occasionally you'll come across a strain or particular plant that likes lower levels of nutrients,and when this happens, it's important to realize the plant is showing signs of toxicity, even if all the other plants in your garden seem fine.
One of the most common signs off too-many-nutrients is "nutrient burn," or when the tips of your leaf appear brown or burned. Yet there are specific signals your plant will display when she's getting
too much nitrogen.

Recap: How You Know You Have a Nitrogen Toxicity

Dark green leaves and foliage

Leaf tips turn down, without signs of overwatering.

You may notice yellowing on the affected leaves or other signs of nutrient deficiencies as time goes on.

Nitrogen toxicity is often but not always accompanied by nutrient burn

The Claw often seems random, affecting leaves here and there

Heat and pH problems will make the clawing worse, as they stress out the plant and lower her defenses,and cause her to drink more water (and uptake more N)

As time goes on, the claw leaves will eventually start turning yellow, getting spots, and dying.

Light and "The Claw"

The distance between the leaves to the lights or irregular light patterns from reflectors often seem to affect the condition, which is why many growers believe that light is somehow causing the problem.

You may notice this clawing first appears on dark green leaves that aren't getting enough light(they aren't able to use up all their nitrogen and become nitrogen toxic).

The Claw in the Flowering Stage

If you use vegetative plant nutrients during the flowering stage, then they'll deliver too much nitrogen.This is why you need to get special nutrients meant for the blooming / flowering stage.
You'll notice that flowering nutrients always contain a smaller percentage of nitrogen(the first number) compared to nutrients for the vegetative stage. Learn more about marijuana nutrients.

Many growers mistakenly keep raising nutrient levels or adding additional nitrogen when they see yellow leaves in the flowering stage, not realizing that it's natural for plant leaves to start yellowing as
harvest approaches. Adding too much nitrogen in the flowering stage can cause nitrogen toxicity even when you can see yellow lower leaves. Nitrogen toxicity in flowering results in smaller yields and airy cannabis buds, so make sure to watch out!
Screenshot_7.png

Screenshot_8.png

Screenshot_9.png

Screenshot_10.png

Note: During the last few weeks before harvest, marijuana plants starts pulling all the remaining nitrogen from her leaves as part of the bud-making process. This causes yellowing leaves starting
towards the bottom of the plant. This is part of the natural flowering process and you don't need to fight it. You may notice that marijuana leaves are yellowing in almost all pictures of marijuana plants
with big buds that are close to harvest. You tend to get smaller yields at harvest from nitrogen-toxic plants with dark green leaves.

It's Normal For Marijuana Leaves To Start Turning Yellow As Harvest Time Approaches,Don't Keep Adding More Nitrogen!
Screenshot_11.png Screenshot_12.png

I know a lot of marijuana plant problems can look similar, but now that you're armed with the right information, you'll know exactly what to do if you see Nitrogen Toxicity affecting your marijuana plants.

Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Dark or Purple Leaves
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
All Leaves Seem Affected
Leaf Edges Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Spots
Leaves Curl Under
Wilting / Drooping
Plant Symptoms:
Weak Stems
Leaves Curl Under
Plant Wilting / Drooping
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#11
Over Watering


Problem: After watering, your plants start drooping. Usually the droopy leaves will feel firm and appear curled down (the whole leaf will be curled, not just the tips, which is often a sign of nitrogen
toxicity). With overwatered cannabis plants, you may also notice Chlorosis (Leaf Yellowing).
Overwatering does not always mean you've been giving the plant too much water. It often means you've been giving the plant water too often, or growing plants in a growing medium without enough drainage.

How Often Do I Water My Cannabis Plants?

Plants use their roots to get oxygen. Oxygen is dissolved in water,and there's also air pockets in their grow medium to provide a source of oxygen. When you water your plants too often, its roots are
sitting in stagnant water which no longer has any oxygen left. The reason your plants droop is because basically their roots are starving for oxygen.
Screenshot_1.png Screenshot_2.png Screenshot_3.png
Screenshot_4.png

Overwatered Marijuana Plants

Drooping / Curling is the first sign of overwaterd marijuana plants

Plants start drooping after watering

Leaves are firm and curled down all the way from the stem to the leaf

Will eventually lead to leaf yellowing and other signs of nutrient problems if not corrected.

Screenshot_5.png
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Screenshot_7.png
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The drooping cannabis plant below did not have drainage holes
(water could not drain out the bottom of the pot). After watering the plant which appeared healthy the night before, the grower came back to this drooping plant the next day - this case of overwatering was caused by too much water being held near the roots due to lack of drainage:
Screenshot_11.png
How to water cannabis properly

1. Wait until the top of the growing medium is dry about an inch deep (up to your first knuckle).

2. Add water until you see some at least 20% extra runoff water drain out the bottom of your pot.Go back to step 1.

3. If top of growing medium stays wet for a long time, you may need to give your plants less water at a time, or improve your drainage.

Learn how to water your marijuana plants perfectly every time

Some growers also use the "lift the pot" method to decide when to water your plants(basically wait until your pot feels "light" since the plants have used up all the water).It's up to you to decide what's easier for you.If your plant medium seems to stay wet for a long time (more than 5 days or so), you may need better drainage. This also can happen when growers put tiny plants in a pot that's way too big.
Make sure that water drains freely from the bottom of your container (it's recommended that you provide enough water to get at least 20% extra runoff every time you water your plants).
You should see water coming out the bottom within a minute or two after watering. Then don't water your plants again until the soil is dry up to your first knuckle.
If your plants are already overwatered, you can try to increase the temperature and airflow to help the water evaporate more quickly. You can also use a pencil to gently poke some air holes into the
growing medium to provide extra aeration and oxygen to the roots.
For other growing mediums besides soil, your watering method will vary, but if your plants are drooping and you've been feeding them a lot of water, it's a good idea to cut back and see if that helps.
If you're growing hydroponically with your marijuana roots directly in water and you see the signs of overwatering, that means you have a problem at your roots. Either your plants have root rot which is
preventing them from getting oxygen at their roots, or you are not dissolving enough oxygen into the water (you can easily increase the dissolved oxygen in your water with a quality air pump and a
few air stones).



Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
All Leaves Seem Affected
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Spots
Slow Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Plant Symptoms:
Weak Stems
Slow Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Plant Wilting / Drooping
Root Symptoms:
Brown
Smelly
Mushy
Slow Growing
 
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#12
Nutrient Burn


Is it Nutrient Burn?
Also commonly known as cannabis "Nute Burn"

Quick Summary: Nutrient burn is one of the most common beginner cannabis growing problems,and is a result of the roots taking in more nutrients than a cannabis plant can use.

This excess level of nutrients causes a brown or yellow "burn" along the tips of your leaves.If nutrient levels are not lowered, the burnt tips start traveling inwards and tend to get crispy and twisted.
Screenshot_1.png
Screenshot_2.png


Nutrient burn is most common when feeding cannabis too-high levels of bottled nutrients and especially chemical nutrients (for example - hydroponic setups often use chemical nutrients that are easily
available to plant roots because they increase potency and yields, but these nutrients are so accessible to the plant roots that they can cause nutrient burn if the grower adds too much).

Nutrient burn can also happen when plants or seedlings are grown directly in soil that has a high level of nutrients (a "hot" soil or growing medium) such as fresh compost, manure or a nutrient-amended soil
mix. This usually happens to young seedlings, and they will "grow out of it" as they begin to use up all the nutrients in the soil, as long as more nutrients are not added.

Problem: You will notice the tips of your leaves showing the first signs of nutrient burn by turning yellow, tan, gold or brown. A light case of nutrient burn will only affect the tips of your leaves.

The yellow tips will eventually turn rusty brown and crispy. If you do not correct the problem,you may also notice the burn slowly spreading from the tips to the whole leaf. At this point, if you haven't done so already, you should immediately treat your plant (directions below) before there's more damage.
Screenshot_3.png
Nutrient burn can also manifest itself as brown or bronze spotting around the edges of the leaf serrations (often when there's an problem with proper absorption of potassium), or with leaf tips curling downwards (tips pointing down is often associated with too much nitrogen).

This is actually a Potassium Deficiency, not nutrient burn!
Screenshot_4.png
Why Growers Should Care About Stopping Nutrient Burn

I have heard some growers say that a little nutrient burn is actually a good thing, because it means that you are giving your plant the highest level of nutrients it can use. A lot of growers have the
mistaken idea that nutrients are somehow "food" for your cannabis plants, and so more food = more energy= bigger yields. This is wrong,instead nutrients are more like a multi-vitamin for your plant.
Just like you can't give a child 10 multivitamins a day to make them grow faster, you can't give your plants 10x the regular does of nutrients and exact anything good to happen.
The real "food" for your plant is light. Your plant produces energy from light through a process known as photosynthesis, which is most effective when the plant has healthy green leaves.
Your leaves are like solar panels, and the energy produced by the leaves is used as energy for the whole plant. You need the leaves to be in tip-top shape to get the most energy from the lights, so your
plant has plenty of energy to grow and produce buds.
Therefore, the biggest problem with nutrient burn is the fact that you are losing leaf mass and overall leaf robustness on your cannabis plant.
A little nute burn won't slow down your plants much, if at all, but if nute burn is left out of control,you will begin to lose serious leaf mass and it will dramatically slow down plant growth and reduce
your overall yields.What's worse, if excess nutrients are not flushed out of the plant's system before harvest,the buds may contain trace amounts of extra nutrients, giving the buds an unpleasant chemical-like taste. Speaking of the flowering stage...
Screenshot_5.png
Nutrient Burn is More Serious in the Flowering Stage

Cannabis plants spend the beginning part of their life in the vegetative stage. When cannabis plants enter the second part of their life, the flowering stage, they stop focusing on making leaves and stems,
and put all their focus on making buds/flowers.

The flowering stage is the most vulnerable stage for cannabis plants, because they don't have much ability to bounce back from any problems.

The further you get into the flowering stage (and the closer you get the harvest), the less likely the plant will replace a leaf that is damaged or dies. By the time harvest is around the corner, your plant
basically stops making any effort to recover from leaf damage, and it's complete focus is on fattening buds.

That's why budding cannabis plants need extra care to thrive - in the flowering stage, a little bit of nutrient burn will probably be okay, but too much nutrient burn can seriously hurt yields because the
plant will not be able to recover. If you are adding nutrients to your water, it can be very easy to burn your plants in the flowering stage (even with nutrient levels it was fine with before) as
different strains have different needs throughout budding.
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Solution For Nute Burn

If you are using bottled nutrients - Most people who get nute burn are feeding their plants extra nutrients in the water. First off, make sure you are using a quality set of nutrients that has been specifically designed for cannabis plants. Any nutrient system designed for plants like a tomato will also work in a pinch. Also make sure you are feeding nutrients for the right growth stage - for example,all cannabis nutrient systems have you feed different nutrients for the vegetative and flowering stage.If you are feeding the wrong type of nutrients for the stage your plant is in, that is an easy way to give your plants lots of nutrient problems including nutrient burn.

If you are using the wrong type of nutrients for a plant like cannabis, you will eventually run into nutrient problems, one way or another.

Many nutrient systems come with instructions to feed your plant more nutrients than most plants actually need. It's good business for the nutrient companies if you use more nutrients. However,
in my experience it's a good idea to view the feeding charts that come with any nutrient system as the maximum amount of nutrients and actually start with much lower levels. I tend to start with half the
recommended amount, and slowly work my way up only if needed.

Hand-watered system - If you are growing in a handwatered system (like in soil or coco coir),flush your system with plain, pH'ed water if you notice the first signs of nutrient burn.
(Learn about pH). If you are not adding any extra nutrients in your grow, then you simply need to wait until the plant uses all the excess nutrients in the soil - after the nutes have been used up,
the plant will naturally get over the nute burn (old leaves won't recover, but leaves should no longer be getting new brown or burnt tips).

Hydro system - Reduce the overall levels of nutrients in your water reservoir by either adding plain pH'ed water to dilute the water, or you could also mix up a new set of nutrients(at lower levels) and completely change the water.

Be careful not to make big changes too fast, it's better to go relatively slowly in hydro.

In hydro, once you change the water and lower the nutrient levels to an appropriate level, you should immediately notice the nutrient burn stop spreading. Old leaves won't recover, but you shouldn't notice any leaves getting worse.

If you don't have a TDS meter to measure the levels of nutrients (and other extra stuff) in your water,I would normally start your plants with a fraction (perhaps 1/2) of the nutrients you were giving them
before - and then work your way up to higher nutrient levels only if you notice the lower leaves are starting to yellow too quickly (nitrogen deficiency). Even then, try to move up nutrient levels as
slowly as you can. If you lose leaves to a nitrogen deficiency from slightly too-low nutrient levels,you will lose a few of the least important lower leaves. But if you raise nutrient levels to fast and
get nutrient burn, all the leaves on the whole plant will be affected and never recover fully.

One of the things that can be frustrating about hydro is that different plants or strains will be okay with different amounts of nutrients. You can be giving 2 plants the exact same levels of nutrients,
and one might get nutrient burn while the other plant is getting a deficiency at the same level.
This is because different plants absorb the nutrients at different rates.

Plus, plants drink more or less water depending on the temperature and humidity of your grow area,so even if you're familiar with the nutrient levels of a particular strain, it can be hard to keep track of the exact right nutrient levels until you get familiar with your setup, unless...

Luckily, there is an awesome tool to make this much easier in hydro.

In hydro, it is very helpful to get a tool called a TDS meter to help you regulate the amount of nutrients in your water. A TDS meter will be able to tell you how much "stuff" is in the water, and whether the levels of nutrients are getting higher or lower each time you check. You can test your reservoir at any time to see if the levels of nutrients are rising, so you'll be able to stop nutrient burn before it even affects your plants.

Could your cannabis also be suffering from Nitrogen Toxicity? - Nitrogen toxicity is common on cannabis plants with nutrient burn

Are the ends of leaves curling like a claw or pointing down like talons? If your plant is experiencing"the claw" and not just normal drooping like from underwatering or overwatering, then you may have a
nitrogen toxicity (too much nitrogen).

These Plants Are NOT Overwaterd, These Leaves Show Signs of Nitrogen Toxicity

Learn more: Nitrogen Toxicity
("The Claw", tips bent down, curling / clawing, dark green leaves)

Nitrogen toxicity is relatively common with plants experiencing nutrient burn.
Screenshot_8.png Screenshot_9.png


Sometimes Mistaken for Nutrient Burn

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Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Dark or Purple Leaves
Black or Gray Patches on Leaves
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
All Leaves Seem Affected
Leaf Edges Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Die
Spots
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Plant Symptoms:
Weak Stems
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#13
Potassium Deficiency



Leaf Problem: With a marijuana potassium deficiency, you'll generally see symptoms on older leaves,but not always. Leaves with a potassium deficiency get yellow, brown, or burnt tips around the edges
and tips. The burnt edges may look a little like nutrient burn, except the affected leaves also start turning yellow in the margins.

You may see the brown burnt edges first, or you may see the yellowing first. When the leaf symptoms are both present, it's a good sign you have a potassium deficiency in your leaves.

Plants may stretch and stems may become weak, but leaf symptoms are more noticeable. The leaf symptoms appear somewhat similar to an iron deficiency in that they can turn bright yellow,
but the tips of the leaves curl as the edges turn brown, burn and die.
Screenshot_1.png
Sometimes you'll get something that looks a lot like tip burn with a potassium deficiency,but it goes in further than nutrient burn, and with a potassium deficiency you also see yellowing between the leaf margins.
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Sometimes the burn can appear pale or yellow, instead of brown. If you look in the background of this pic, you can see some of the leaves have turned brown in addition to the bright yellow leaf
in the front. These are all signs of a marijuana potassium deficiency.
Screenshot_4.png

Potassium deficiencies are commonly mistaken for other nutrient problems!
Screenshot_5.png

Sometimes the first symptoms of a cannabis potassium deficiency look a lot like nutrient burn.One difference is the edges of the leaves will also start turning brown, where nutrient burn usually
only affects the tips. And unlike with nutrient burn the leaves of a potassium deficiency turn yellow in the margins, especially near the burn edges.

This isn't nutrient burn, it's actually the first stage of potassium deficiency!
Screenshot_4.png
Could it actually be light burn?

Keeping your grow lights too close, for example with powerful LEDs and HPS grow lights can give your plants "sunburn" even if the temperature is cool! This can sometimes look like exactly like a cannabis potassium deficiency when the true problem is your grow lights are too close to your leaves.

These leaves look like they have a potassium deficiency but the symptoms are actually
caused by light burn (grow lights being kept too close)

Screenshot_6.png

Solution for Potassium Deficiency in Cannabis

Note: Sometimes a cannabis potassium deficiency (like all deficiencies) can be triggered by stressful conditions (for example overwatering, heat, transplant, etc) and may clear up on its own after the
period of stress is over. If you only see one or two affected leaves near the bottom of the plant,and the problem isn't spreading, I wouldn't worry too much about it!
1.) Make Sure It's Not Light Burn

When a cannabis plant is kept too close to the grow lights, it can get light burn which looks almost exactly like a potassium deficiency. If you're using powerful lights like an LED or MH/HPS, consider
moving the light away a few inches further away to see if that stops the problem from spreading.LEDs or MH/HPS should never be kept closer than 12" away, and most models should be kept further.

2.) Use Good Sources of Nutrients

Most cannabis growers don't need to add more nutrients if their leaves are experiencing a nutrient deficiency. In fact, most growers have actually already given plenty of potassium to their cannabis
plants, whether they meant to or not. If you're using quality soil or cannabis-friendly nutrients,you probably don't need to worry about adding more patassium.
Potassium deficiencies are generally more likely to appear when a grower is using heavily filtered or reverse osmisis (RO) water to feed plants, but as long as you're giving your plants a good source of
nutrients, you probably need to...

3.) Adjust pH to Correct Range

But the reason most growers see potassium deficiencies is because potassium is best absorbed at lower pH ranges. When the pH gets too high, your plant may exhibit signs of a potassium deficiency
even if it's physically there near the roots.

Learn how to manage your pH when growing cannabis.

In soil, potassium is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 7.0 pH range
In hydro or coco coir, potassium is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.5 pH range.

4.) Watch Leaves for Recovery

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a potassium deficiency, flush your system with clean,pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients. Old damaged growth will likely
not recover. Watch plant over next few days to make sure that the problem stops spreading to new growth.

If you cannot get rid of your potassium deficiency and want to look at more pictures of cannabis leaf symptoms...


Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Leaf Edges Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Die
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Spots
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Abnormal Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Leaves Curl Upwards
Plant Symptoms:
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Leaves Curl Upwards
Stretch (big spaces between nodes)
Too Tall
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#14
pH Fluctuations




Quick Summary: Managing pH is crucial for cannabis plants to be able to take up nutrients through their roots. When the pH around the roots jumps up and down, it can stress the plant and cause brown spots
to appear on the leaves. Spotting on the leaves as a results of pH fluctuations is more common in hydroponic setups (where the pH tends to go up and down), but it is possible it can also happen in soil.
This seems to often happen when the pH swings too high.

Note: You can also get these symptoms from root problems or root rot!

Problem: Certain leaves on the middle or lower parts of the plant show tan or brown spotting,similar to these pictures:
Screenshot_1.png
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Solution: The main way to fix this problem is to fix the pH problem that caused the spotting (more info below). The leaves that are effected will not recover, but once you fix the issue,the problem should stop spreading to other leaves.

Learn how to manage your pH...

Note: You can also get similar symptoms from root problems...

Leaf Color:
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Spots
Mottling / Mosaic
 
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#15
Phosphorus Deficiency




Problem: A cannabis phosphorus deficiency generally appears on leaves from the lower/older parts of the plant. The lower leaves may turn dark green or yellow, and start getting spots or big splotches that look brown, bronze or even a little blue. The leaves may thicken and curl, and the affected leaves feel stiff. Sometimes the stems of the plant turn bright red or purple, but not always. Screenshot_1.png

A cannabis phosphorus deficiency usually appears with some or all of the following symptoms:

usually affects the lower and older leaves of the plant

leaves darken (turning a dark green, blue or grayish color) and may appear shiny

leaves may start turning yellow if the phosphorus deficiency is left untreated, or if the deficiency is combined with other nutrients deficiencies and/or pH problems.

leaves get bronze, purple or brown spots and splotches

leaves thicken and may feel dry or stiff

stems sometimes turn bright red or purple, but not always

Phosphorus deficiencies in the vegetative stage usually appear at the bottom of the plant on some of the oldest leaves, and will progressively climb up the plant if left unchecked.

The progression of a cannabis phosphorus deficiency
Screenshot_2.png

Cannabis plants tend to love phosphorus in the flowering/budding stage and it is unlikely for a cannabis plant to get too much phosphorus using standard nutrients formulated for a flowering plant like cannabis. Nearly all flowering nutrients will come with an abundance of phosphorus for your plants.
So if you're seeing a cannabis phosphorus deficiency while using standard cannabis nutrients, chances are you actually have a root pH problem (explained below in the solution section)! Screenshot_3.png
Phosphorus (P) is used by your cannabis plant in all phases of growth. It is one of the 3 major nutrients (N-P-K) listed on the front of most nutrient bottles, and phosphorus will be represented by the second number that appears.

When there is a phosphorus deficiency, the lower (oldest) leaves turn dark green. Leaves occasionally get a bluish or bronze tinge, and may thicken or curl downard before exhibiting dark gray, bronze or
purplish splotches. Sometimes the stems of the affected leaves will turn bright red or purplish,usually starting from underneath.
Screenshot_4.png

Sometimes you will get a cannabis phosphorus deficiency, and the stems do not appear red or purple at all, or the coloring may not be pronounced. Screenshot_5.png

The leaf below was at the bottom of the plant and turned dark green and shiny, with a bluish tinge.Cannabis phosphorus deficiencies usually appear on the lower/older parts of the plant. The leaf then
started showing the spots of a phosphorus deficiency where it was being touched by light(the parts of the leaf working hardest). The leaf began to curl downwards and turn yellow.

Notice that the stems or veins never turned red or purple on this leaf, except for some parts that were actually affected by the phosphorus deficiency.
Screenshot_6.png
A common "symptom" of a cannabis phosphorus deficiency is red or purple stems. It's important to remember that some cannabis strains naturally grow with red or purple stems even when all their
nutrient needs are being fulfilled, so red or purple stems is not a symptom to worry about on its own.

Do not mistake natural reddish-purple colored stems for a phosphorous deficiency!

When you notice that stems are turning red or purple starting from underneath, it may be a sign of a phosphorus deficiency only if accompanied by other symptoms. If the only symptom shown by your plant is red or purple stems, and you are not seeing any other signs of splotches or unhealthy leaves,the red or purple stems are likely caused by the genetics of your plant. If that's the case, you have
nothing to worry about.
Screenshot_7.png

Phosphorus is used heavily by cannabis plants in the flowering phase to produce buds,and is a crucial component of photosynthesis (turning light into energy for the plant).

Some strains of cannabis use much more phosphorus than others, or be more susceptible to a phosphorus deficiency, and you may have many plants in the exact same setup with only some of the plants showing signs of a phosphorus deficiency.


1.) Adjust pH to Correct Range

Your cannabis plant may show signs of a phosphorus deficiency if the pH at the roots is not in the right range. That is because when the pH of your root zone is off, your cannabis cannot properly absorb
phosphorus through its roots. Therefore the first step is to ensure that you have the correct pH for your growth medium. Learn more about pH and cannabis.

Phosphorus is best absorbed by cannabis in soil at a root pH of 6.2 - 7.0. Phosphorus is best absorbed by cannabis in hydro at a root pH of 5.5 - 6.2. If you believe you have a cannabis phosphorus deficiency,
it's important to check the pH of your root zone to make sure the deficiency isn't caused by the pH being too high or too low.

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a phosphorus deficiency, flush your system with clean,
pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes phosphorus.This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of phosphorus and help restore pH
to the proper levels.

In soil, phosphorus is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.2 - 7.0 pH range (in soil, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 6.0 - 7.0, but phosphorus specifically tends to be best absorbed
above 6.2 and below 7.0)In hydro, phosphorus is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.2 pH range (in hydro, it's generally
recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 - 6.5, but phosphorus specifically tends to be best absorbed below 6.2)

2.) Take Good Care of the Roots

Wet, compact soil or overwatering can trigger a phosphorus deficiency to appear even when all other factors are perfect. So make sure you water your plants properly every time to help prevent a phosphorus
deficiency.

3.) Provide the Right Temperature

Cooler temperatures lower than 60°F (15°C), as well as large temperature swings, can make it harder for the plant to absorb phosphorus. Cannabis plants are therefore more likely to show signs of a phosphorus deficiency when the temperature drops too low, or if they go through a cold spell.
Cannabis likes a comfortable room temperature (they like about the same temperatures as we do).

4.) Give the Right Nutrients

Most growers have actually already given plenty of phophorus to their
cannabis plants since it is found abundantly in quality soil and cannabis-friendly nutrients. However, even if you are giving
phosphorus, it's important to give your cannabis the right ratio of nutrients.

An excess of Fe and Zn may cause the symptoms of a phosphorus deficiency by preventing the plant from being able to absorb phosphorus properly. If you believe there may be a buildup of nutrient salts in
your growing medium (or if you are growing in hydro and have not recently flushed or changed your reservoir) you should make sure it's not an excess of other nutrients that is actually causing the
phosphorus deficiency to appear. Flush your plant thoroughly with properly pH'ed water containing a regular dose of cannabis nutrients including phosphorus, or completely change your reservoir if you
believe that an excess of nutrient salts may be causing the phosphorus deficiency.

Sources of phosphorus:

Bat guano (phosphorus is readily available, especially if made into a teat)Bone or blood meal (takes quite a bit of time to break down in soil unless made into a tea first)
Worm castings or worm tea
Soft Rock Phosphate
Fish meal
Crabshell
Most cannabis-friendly "bloom" or "flowering" nutrients contain high levels of phosphorus to aid in flower production, and phosphorus from a liquid nutrient is one of the most readily available
forms of phosphorus you can provide to your cannabis plants.

If you've tried everything else, then you may try adding a higher percentage of phosphorus to your feeding schedule and see if that helps clear up the problem for your plant. Cannabis plants love
phosphorus, and therefore it is unlikely that you will give your cannabis too much phosphorus.

Most nutrient systems that are formulated for a plant like cannabis will carry and abundance of phosphorus, especially in budding/flowering formulas, so it is unlikely that you will see signs of a phosphorus deficiency before other nutrient problems when using nutrient systems formulated for cannabis(as long as you keep your root pH in the correct range and prevent the plants from getting cold or being
overwatered). If you've got very high powered lights, or if your plants are growing in direct sunlight,they may be going through a lot more phosphorus in the flowering stage than average and may need you to
provide extra phosphorus to make sure buds get as big as they could be.

Just remember that if there's no actual phosphorus deficiency currently appearing on your cannabis plant,adding more phosphorus is probbaly not going to help plants grow better or make bigger buds - in fact
adding too much phosphorus may actually hurt your plants by preventing the uptake of other nutrients!While it's difficult to overdose your plants on phosphorus, adding too much compared to other nutrients will often cause other strange & unexpected deficiencies to appear.


5.) Take Good Care of the Roots

Phosphorus deficiencies can show up with the plant is having root problems or if the plant is overwatered, even if the pH is right and the phosphorus is there. Proper watering practices help plants
grow healthy and avoid a host of problems!

6.) Watch for Recovery

After going through all the above steps, watch to make sure that the phosphorus deficiency starts to clear up within a few days to a week or so. After a phosphorus deficiency is cleared up, the problem
(brown spots, unhealthy lower leaves, red/purple stems, etc) will stop appearing on new leaves,usually within a week.

Please note that leaves which have been damaged by a phosphorus deficiency will probably never recover or turn green, so you want to pay attention to other leaves for signs of recovery.


Leaf Color:
Edges Appear Brown or Burnt
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - New Growth
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Dark or Purple Leaves
Black or Gray Patches on Leaves
Red or Pink Color on Leaves
Brown or Dark Spots
Mottling / Mosaic Pattern
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Small Inner Leaves Affected
Leaf Edges Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Die
Thick Growth Tips
Red Stems
Spots
Mottling / Mosaic
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Abnormal Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Plant Symptoms:
Red or Purple Stems
Weak Stems
Old Leaves Dropping Off
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Too Short
Root Symptoms:
Slow Growing
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#16
Manganese Deficiency



Problem: Leaves may become yellow in between the veins, with mottled brown spots on the affected leaves.These brown dead patches may spread and eventually kill the leaf. Leaves may also shred and fall apart.

Overall growth of the marijuana plant may be stunted. With a manganese deficiency, the yellowing will begin at the base of the leave and move outwards towards the tips.
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Solution for Manganese Deficiency in Cannabis

Your plant may also exhibit signs of a manganese deficiency if the pH is too high, or if the plant is getting too much iron.

Learn how to manage your pH when growing cannabis.

Please note: After a manganese deficiency is cleared up, the problem (brown spots and yellowing leaves)will stop spreading to other growth usually within a week. Please note that leaves which have been
damaged by a manganese deficiency will probably not recover or turn green, so you want to pay attention to other growth for signs of recovery.

In soil, manganese is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 7.0 pH range (some growers recommend keeping the pH slightly lower, from 6.0 - 6.5, if you suspect a manganese deficiency in particular)
In hydro, manganese is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.0 pH range (in hydro, it's generally recommended to keep the pH between 5.5 - 6.5, but manganese specifically tends to be best absorbed
below 6.0)

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a manganese deficiency, flush your system with clean,pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes manganese.
This will remove any extra iron or nutrient salts that may be affected the uptake of manganese,it will help restore pH to the proper levels, and will supply the plant with any missing nutrients.

You are looking to avoid higher pH ranges, as this is where manganese deficiencies are most likely to occur.


Leaf Color:
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - New Growth
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Brown or Dark Spots
Mottling / Mosaic Pattern
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Yellowing Between Veins
Veins of Leaves Stay Green
Spots
Mottling / Mosaic
Slow Growth
Abnormal Growth
Plant Symptoms:
Slow Growth
 
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#17
Sulfur Deficiency




Problem: A sulfur deficiency will manifest itself as all-over chlorosis (yellowing of leaves),usually starting with the newer leaves and at first may look like a nitrogen deficiency.

The parts underneath the leaves may take on a pinkish red or orange color. The buds on a flowering plant may start dying off. Unlike most other deficiencies that cause chlorosis, a sulfur deficiency
will start at the back of the leaf and move it's way forward as opposed to starting at the tips.
Screenshot_1.png Screenshot_2.png Screenshot_3.png

Solution: Check and correct your pH to make sure that your sulfur isn't being locked out.Sulfur moves slowly through the plant so it may take a few days after you fix the problem before you start noticing an improvement in your plant.



Leaf Color:
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - New Growth
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Yellowing Between Veins
Red or Pink Color on Leaves
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Yellowing Between Veins
Slow Growth
Plant Symptoms:
Slow Growth
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#18
Zinc Deficiency



Problem: With a cannabis zinc deficiency, younger leaves start yellowing in between the veins.Leaf tips get discolored and start dying. the leaves may take on a unique banded appearance and the plant may stop growing vertically. There may be much less space between new nodes, which can cause new leaves to start bunching together. If the plant is budding, its flowers may stop growing or even start dying if the problem isn't corrected.
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Solution For Cannabis Zinc Deficiency

Note: Sometimes a cannabis zinc deficiency (like all deficiencies) can be triggered by stressful conditions and may clear up on its own after the period of stress is over. However, to minimize damage
it's important to react to any growing problem as quickly as possible, especially in the flowering stage.

1.) Adjust pH to Correct Range

The most common reason growers will see a zinc deficiency is when the pH at the roots is too high.Zinc tends to get locked at at higher pH levels, and is better absorbed by the plant in a more acidic
root environment.

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a zinc deficiency due to too-high pH,flush your system with clean, pH'd water. This will remove any nutrient salts that may be affecting the uptake of zinc and help restore pH to the proper levels..

In soil, zinc is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 6.5 pH range (although it's generally recommended for soil growers to keep pH in the 6.0-7.0 range, zinc tends to be absorbed better on the
lower side)In hydro, zinc is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.0 pH range (although it's generally recommended for hydro growers to keep pH in the 5.5-6.5 range, zinc tends to be absorbed better on
the lower side)Learn how to manage your pH for growing cannabis.


2.) Give the Right Nutrients

The truth is, most cannabis growers don't need to add more zinc in response to a zinc deficiency!

In fact, most growers have actually already given plenty of zinc to their cannabis plants since it is found abundantly in most tap water. If you're using quality soil or cannabis-friendly nutrients, you
probably don't need to worry about adding more zinc. In general, zinc deficiencies are more likely to appear when a grower is using heavily filtered or reverse osmisis (RO) water to feed plants since any
zinc has been removed, but pH is a much more common reason growers see zinc deficiencies in their cannabis plants.

3.) Take Good Care of the Roots

Zinc deficiencies can show up with the plant is having root problems or if the plant is overwatered,even if the pH is right and the zinc is there. Proper watering practices help plants grow healthy and avoid a host of problems!

4.) Watch for Recovery

After going through all the above steps, watch to make sure that the zinc deficiency starts to clear up within a few days to a week or so. The damaged leaves may not recover completely, but you know you're
in the clear when you stop seeing symptoms on new leaves.



Leaf Color:
Yellow Leaves - New Growth
Yellowing Between Veins
Mottling / Mosaic Pattern
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Leaf Tips Appear Burnt
Leaf Tips Die
Yellowing Between Veins
Mottling / Mosaic
Slow Growth
Twisted Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Plant Symptoms:
Slow Growth
Leaves Curl Under
Too Short
Other Symptoms:
Buds Not Fattening
 
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#19
Under-Watering



Problem: If your plant is drooping, then it's usually a sign of either over or under-watering.
Screenshot_1.png

If your soil or soilless medium look bone dry, or if you know that your roots have dried out,than skip right down the the solution section, as you definitely have a case of underwatering.

Not Sure? If you're not sure whether your plant needs more or less water, how do you figure out exactly why your plant is drooping?

1.) Determine: Is my plant over-watered?

A cannabis plant does not get over-watered because it's given too much water at once - overwatering is caused by the plant being watered too often, or if the plant does not have proper drainage (which means the growing medium is taking too long to dry out).

2.) If not over-watered, does my plant have root problems?

Growing hydroponically? When you see signs of wilting and overwatering in a plant that is growing hydroponically with the roots in water, usually that's a sign of a root problem like root rot.

In fact, all cannabis plants can sometimes display wilting/drooping symptoms that are actually the result of root problems.

3.) You may be seeing symptoms of under-watering

So if you read the short description in step 1 about what causes overwatering (and you're sure you haven't overwatered your cannabis plants), and you're certain you're not seeing signs of root problems,
than your cannabis plant might be drooping or wilting because it needs more water.

If you've been underwatering your plant, its leaves will look limp and lifeless, like these plants.
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Symptoms of underwatering look the same whether your cannabis plant is growing in soil or a soilless growing medium like coco coir or perlite.

Solution:

Don't wait until leaves droop to water your potted cannabis plant! While it is generally a good idea to let your potted cannabis plant dry out a bit after watering (watering too often causes its own problems), you should always water your cannabis plants again before the leaves start drooping.

This is the case for cannabis plants grown in both soilless growing mediums and soil.

First-time growers tend to overwater their plants, but underwatering happens too.

So you're pretty sure your plant is under-watered. A thirsty cannabis plant will usually perk up quickly after the roots are given water.


Learn about ones of the best ways to properly water your potted cannabis plant every time...

How to water cannabis properly (for soil and most soilless mediums)

Wait until the top of the growing medium is dry about an inch deep (up to your first knuckle).

Add water until you see some at least 20% extra runoff water drain out the bottom of your pot.
Go back to step 1. (If water does not come out quickly or pots take more than 5 days to dry out for step 1, you may have a drainage problem)

Learn more about how to water your cannabis plants perfectly every time..

Another simple way to tell if a potted plant is ready to be watered is to pick it up and tell if it feels heavy or not.

As plants use up all the water in their pot, it will get lighter. If you need something for comparison,you can get an extra pot and fill it with your growing medium. Now you can use this extra container for
comparison with your potted plants as it represents the 'dry weight' of your growing medium. If you pick up a potted plant and its feels just slightly heavier than your dry pot, then you know it's time to water
your plant. After a while you get a feel for how heavy your plants need to be and you may not even need the extra pot anymore.



Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Leaves Curl Under
Wilting / Drooping
Plant Symptoms:
Plant Wilting / Drooping
 
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#20
Molybdenum Deficiency




Problem: The initial symptoms may appear similar to a nitrogen deficiency(yellowing of older, lower leaves). Leaves may become mottled or spotted. However,the tell-tale sign of a molybdenum deficiency is the leaves may start to display a unique orange,red or pink color around the edges which will start to move toward the center of the leaf.
Sometimes the color appears in the middle of the leaves as opposed to the edges.
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Solution:

A real molybdenum deficiency in cannabis is rare, and even scientists did not realize this mineral is needed by most plants because it is often present in low concentrations all the time.

For cannabis plants, molybdenum tends gets locked out at lower pH ranges. Your cannabis plant may show signs of a molybdenum deficiency if the pH at the roots is too low, although it is likely that
molybdenum is there. That is because when the pH of your root zone is off, your cannabis cannot properly absorb molybdenum through its roots. Therefore the first step is to ensure that you have the
correct pH for your growth medium. Learn more about pH and cannabis.

Please note: After a molyndenum deficiency is cleared up, the problem
(pink coloring and yellowing leaves) will stop appearing on other parts of the plant, usually within a week. Please note that leaves which have been damaged by a molybdenum deficiency will probably not
recover or turn green, so you want to pay attention to other growth for signs of recovery.

In soil, molybdenum is best absorbed by the roots in the 6.0 - 7.0 pH range(some growers recommend avoiding a soil pH of lower than 6.5 if you suspect a molybdenum deficiency)In hydro, molybdenum is best absorbed by the roots in the 5.5 - 6.5 pH range

If you suspect your growing cannabis plant has a molybdenum deficiency, flush your system with clean,pH'd water that contains a regular dose of cannabis-friendly nutrients that includes molybdenum.
This will remove any nutrient salts that may be preventing the uptake of molybdenum and help restore pH to the proper levels..



Leaf Color:
Pale Color Leaves
Yellow Leaves - New Growth
Yellow Leaves - Lower, older leaves
Red or Pink Color on Leaves
Brown or Dark Spots
Leaf Symptoms:
Upper Leaves / Newer Growth Affected
Lower Leaves / Older Growth Affected
Spots