Tips on Breeding by DJ Short

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Breeding tips
by DJ Short (25 Nov, 2002) How to bring out the Sativa and breed the ultimate buds.

To understand the principles behind the breeding of cannabis you first need to be familiar with some basic terms related to genetics. "Genotype" is the genetic and chromosomal make-up of any given individual – it is the genetic code. "Phenotype" is the expression of body type, structure, and appearance of individuals; it results from the interaction between genotype and environment.

Specific environmental conditions are often required for certain phenotypic expressions from a given genotype. If the available nutrients, hours of sunlight, or other conditions are not available then the development of the plant or animal will be altered. These conditions are referred to as "environmental triggers."

Two individuals with the same genotype can have greatly different phenotypes if grown in different environments.

Indoor vs outdoor

In terms of growing and breeding cannabis, there is a distinct difference between indoor and outdoor grow environments. No matter where on the planet one is, the indoor environment is usually far more limited when compared to the spectrum of conditions existing outdoors.

When compared to the wide variety of conditions available outdoors, the indoor environment may be seen as relatively bland and generic. The greenhouse environment, especially when fortified with electric light, is perhaps the closest thing available to a happy marriage

Three subspecies

It is useful to agree, at least in theory, that there are three separate subspecies of the genus Cannabis – Sativa, Indica and Ruderalis.

Cannabis Sativa is the equatorial variety found primarily around 30 degrees latitude North or South. Sativa generally grow tall, from seven to thirty feet, have many long branches, narrower leaflets, and mature slowly.

Cannabis Indica varieties generally inhabit the areas between 30-50 degrees North or South latitude. Indica are generally much shorter than Sativa, only about three to five feet tall. They have fewer and shorter branches than Sativa, the longer of which are lower on the plant, with much wider leaflets. They also mature earlier and more rapidly than Sativa.

Cannabis Ruderalis grow naturally primarily past 50 degrees north latitude (the Siberian steppes). Ruderalis are the shortest, least bushy, and fastest maturing of the three.

The end of the sweet spots

Prior to the late 1970's, virtually all commercially available cannabis products came from the great outdoors. Many of these varieties had been grown in their particular region since antiquity – not since the advent of sailing had a greater diversification and distribution of the herb occurred.

Most cannabis available was also very well acclimated to its particular region of origin. Certain places tended to produce very unique and desirable types of herb that were renowned to each region. I like to refer to these high-quality cannabis producing areas as "sweet spots." The products coming out of these sweet spots during this era were among the finest herbs ever available.

A series of phenomena occurred in the late 1970's and early 80's that has since revolutionized the cannabis industry. This series included the triad of sinsemilla, High Intensity Discharge (HID) lighting, and the introduction of Indica genetics, coupled with draconian herb laws that drove the industry far underground. Never before in human history was so much genetic diversity of cannabis grown in such generic, indoor conditions. The results of this phenomenon have wreaked havoc on the cannabis gene pool.

The road to blandness

As Indica, sinsemilla and HID lighting became predominant, it became apparent that Sativa varieties were very difficult to coax commercial amounts of sinsemilla herb from indoors. The fast maturing, dense bud structure of the easy-to-grow Indica soon dominated the indoor grow scene.

Another factor contributing to the desirability of the indoor Indica was its truebreeding "dioecious" nature, meaning that individual plants tend to be male or female only, but not both. In contrast, many Sativa strains show hermaphroditic tendencies indoors, with male and female flowers on the same plant. (It is my opinion that wild Sativa strains of cannabis are primarily truebreeding hermaphroditic varieties.)

As outdoor production diminished due to intolerant laws and the drug war, indoor production of Indica phenotypes became the staple of the commercial indoor grower. The road to generic blandness had begun.

Although some Sativa/Indica crosses matched some of the Sativa flavor and head high with the Indica bud structure, this desirability would only last for a few generations of breeding. Unless a person is breeding for a very specific trait, crosses seven generations and beyond the original P1 Indica/Sativa cross lose much of their original charm and desirability. Cloning, however, helps to extend a given plant's potential.

Ruderalis: myth and misnomer

As indoor growers attempted to improve their genetic lines via breeding, another interesting phenomenon occurred: Ruderalis. Although there is a wild variety identified as Ruderalis in Russia ("Ruderalis" is supposedly Russian for "by the side of the road") that grows very short and matures very fast, I seriously doubt the rumor that someone actually went to Russia to collect
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of this variety sometime in the past. Or, if someone actually did go all the way to Russia to find, collect and smuggle "rudy"
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, I do feel sorry for their waste of time. They could have gotten the same worthless thing from Minnesota, Saskatchewan or Manitoba with much less hassle.

The North American Ruderalis probably originated as follows: After the Indica varieties arrived in the US and became incorporated into the gene pool, many breeders began to cross the earliest maturing individuals with each other in hopes of shortening the maturation cycle.

It would only take a few generations for the ugly Rudy phenotypes to begin expressing themselves. By ugly, I am referring to a strong lack of potency and/or desirability. I know, I was once guilty of the practice myself. It did not take me long to realize that this was a huge mistake in regard to the quality and potency of the future generations' finished product, and all subsequent breeding along this line was ceased.

Many of these manipulated rudies were released on the open market between 1981 and 1986. It was shortly after this period that the grow journals of the era (Sinsemilla Tips and High Times) ran articles about the possibility of a new wonder variety for indoor grows: fast blooming Ruderalis. Rumor had spread to myth and misnomer. Therefore, it may be more appropriate to say that the Ruderalis phenotype was coaxed from Indica genetics, via the indoor breeding environment.

The same applies to many of the Indica dominant varieties available today. Breeders selecting for early, fast flowering or fast growth often miss out on some of the finer and more subtle characteristics available from crossing certain genotypes. My advice to breeders is to wait until the finished product is suitably tested before coming to any conclusions regarding desirable candidates for future breeding consideration.

Phenotypic expression

The malleability of phenotypic expression among the Sativa/Indica crosses must also be noted. The variability of phenotypic expression among the f2 generation of a truly polar (pure Sativa/pure Indica) P1 cross is quite phenomenal. The second generation f2 crosses will exhibit the full spectrum of possibilities between the original parents – extreme Indica, extreme Sativa, and everything in between.

However, regardless of any particular phenotype selected from among this given f2 cross, future generations may drift radically. Depending on the presence (or lack) of a number of environmental triggers, an f2 Indica phenotype may be coaxed more toward Sativa traits, or an f2 Sativa phenotype may be coaxed more toward Indica expression. The key is environmental conditions.

This is what distinguishes the truebreeding, ancient acclimated, region of origin varieties – especially the tropical and equatorial Sativa – from the crosses that have happened since. The ancient specimens have a much narrower genotype range, and therefore a more specific phenotype than their contemporary crosses despite environmental conditions. It is up to future adventurers to provide the best possible environmental considerations, along with the best possible genetic considerations, in order to resurrect the legendary happy flowers of yore.


 
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Inducing Sativa

After many years of first-hand experience breeding herb indoors as well as outdoors, I am of the opinion that the two most influential factors involving phenotypic variation and expression among current indoor herb breeding projects are the photoperiod (hours of light per day) and the angle of light in relationship to the growing plant.

Specifically, I find the single most powerful influence to the Indica dominant phenotype is the traditional 18/6 veggie cycle and 12/12 flowering cycle. The 18/6 veggie and 12/12 flower cycle is an attempt, however poor, to mimic the Indica-producing photoperiod. It is my belief that this light cycle strongly influences for Indica phenotypic expression.

Sativa phenotype characteristics will manifest under a more equatorial photoperiod, closer to a 13/11 veggie cycle and an 11/13 flower cycle. This is the light timing range to use to elicit more Sativa dominant expression from your plants.

As for the exact photoperiod formula that I incorporate into my growing/breeding regime, this will presently remain a trade secret. My advice is to experiment with different photoperiods, keep good notes and pay attention. Avoid the 18/6 and 12/12 photoperiods, while tweaking the times a bit differently with each breeding cycle until more desirable results in the finished product and their offspring are noted. Here's a hint: work in half-hour increments or a little less, and good luck!

Angle of Light

Angle of light simply refers to the physical angle of light source the plant is dependent upon for growth. Perhaps the greatest difference between indoor and outdoor environments has to do with the angle of light received by the plant. This is also one of the greatest seasonal differences between the Sativa and Indica producing regions.

Outdoors, the main light source is the Sun, with minor influence coming from nearby reflective surfaces. As a plant grows taller and broader outdoors, that angle of light from the sun changes very little in relationship to the growing plant.

Seasonal changes in angle of light increase the further away from the equator one gets. At the equator there is the least amount of seasonal change in angle of light, only about 20°, whereas at the 45th parallel that change is as great as 45°. At the 45th latitude, the Summer Sun is high in the sky while during early Spring and late Fall the sunlight comes from much lower in the sky. The farther one goes from the equator, the greater the difference in seasonal changes regarding angle of light.

Indoors, the lights typically range from a few inches to several feet from the plant. As the plant grows taller, its physical relationship to the bulb's angle of light changes considerably. Most indoor grow rooms have relatively low ceilings, therefore, raising the bulbs may maintain a similar angle of light early on, but eventually the angle changes. The same differences may be noted among plants directly below the bulb and the plants off to the side of the room farther away from the bulb.

Circular light shuttles tend to emulate the arctic summer and create a confusing signal completely unknown to the equatorial Sativa. Straight-track overhead light shuttles are more conducive to inducing the Sativa phenotype.

Aromatics and flavors

Many indoor growers try to get their budding plants as close to the light source as possible. Though this may increase bulk production of both bud and trichome, I find that this practice tends to destroy many of the finer aromatic qualities of the herb.

Buds too close to the light tend to express nothing beyond the lower lemon/lime aromas of the fruity spectrum. Sometimes the aroma is no better than a strong chemical/astringent odor and flavor, especially those under High Pressure Sodium light systems. The finer berry flavors tend to favor more distance from the bulb, and will manifest more strongly under High Ultraviolet Metal Halide light systems, especially during the latter stages of flowering.

Something akin to a gymnasium building with high ceilings and super 5000W lights hung far from the growing plants, set at a Sativa-tweaked photoperiod, would be the ultimate indoor grow-op to coax Sativa phenotypes.

Sweet spot fantasy

Nothing will ever rival the great outdoor sweet spots for quality cannabis production. Hopefully, someday, somewhere, someone will be daring and lucky enough to get away with re-establishing some of the great genetic lines in their specific region of origin sweet spots.

Equatorial Sativa varieties are of interest for quality herb production (Thailand, Oaxaca, Colombia, Central Africa, etc.) as the Indica zones are more renowned for hashish production. Parts of Nepal tend to produce both excellent hashish and fine Sativa buds, with some plants reportedly living longer than two years!
 
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"......early flowering males are BAD because they carry dominant male genetic traits like hermaphroditism and fibre production.
If you want a faster maturing strain then selectively breed towards that goal using progressively earlier finishing females, NOT males.


1)Males that autoflower regardless of daylight hours are culled to insure against hermaphroditism or unwanted male traits.

2) Males that show sex first, flower too quickly or too tall are also eliminated because they put too much energy into fibre production..

3) Males that have a large hollow main stem rather than more pith filled stems are better THC producers.

4) Males that produce tight,compact floral clusters rather than sparse airy ones are also usually better to breed with.

5) If you rub your fingers up and down the stem of a young male and get strong aromas (terpines) then you would be advised to use these as trichome production and flavour are directly related to plants that produce odours early on.


There are a couple more traits to look for like early trich production in veg but these are quite advanced and need microscope help which is not really relevant for a hobby breeder."
 
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What is combining ability?
Certain inbred lines will display hybrid vigour when crossed. These vigorous lines are said to have favorable combining ability.
Certain inbreds have the ability to combine well with testers--these have general combining ability (GCA). When the inbred combines well only in certain crosses, it has specific combining ability (SCA). The only way to select for combining ability is to grow and examine the progeny. An astute breeder can recognize the potentital for hybrid vigour by identifying the dominant traits of the parents and deducing which lines may combine favorably.
Predicting the combining ability of recessive traits can only be determined through progeny testing.
The breeder is interested in single crosses (also known as F1 generations) that outperform other single crosses. If the breeder has multiple IBLs to work with, she could select first for GCA, then for SCA among the lines with GCA, then identify the best parental gene donors. In most cases with Cannabis you can go directly to selecting for specific combining ability between your IBL and your testers.
What is hybrid vigour?
When two inbred lines from diferent origins are crossed and the resultant progeny produce a better yield or quality due to a better balance of genes, that is hybrid vigour (heterosis). Not all crosses are an improvement on the parents. Random crosses among random lines will give you random results. Hybrid vigour results when the parents used express favorable specific combining ability.
What are the different types of crosses?
A "single cross" is another name for an F1 hybrid. When two IBLs are crossed the F1 hybrid, or single cross, is the result. This type of cross has the most uniformity and hybrid vigor which makes it the best choice for the home gardener.
A "double cross" is made by crossing two single crosses which come from four separate IBLs. A double cross will be somewhat more variable than a single cross, but will have a wider range of adaptability. This adaptability makes the double cross good for diverse indoor environments.
The "top cross" and the "three way cross" are used as testers. A top cross is an IBL crossed with a variety, and it is used to test for general combining ability.(Ed.note:Only GCA can be found in a topcross.SCA is not sought because one half of the topcross is from a single genotype and the other half is from mixed gametes,therefore,one gene donor is unspecified.) A three way cross is an IBL crossed with an F1. The result of this cross will be one of the parents of the double-cross, and it is used to test for specific combining ability.
A "backcross" is crossing the progeny back to one of its parents,and on another level, to any plant with the same genotype as a Parent. It is designed to improve the parent by retaining most of its qualities and adding a new one. After a series of backcrosses,some degree of uniformity is realized as a result of increased gene frequencies,fixing of some loci through selection and some incidental homozygosity. However, the offspring can only become completely homozygous if the recurrent parent was completely homozygous,and will remain heterozygous for the loci that were heterozygous in the recurrent parent.
A "self cross" is the result of a female Cannabis plant pollinating herself, whether by artificial induction or natural hermaphrodite tendencies. A female that has produced seed from its own pollen is said to be the S0 generation and the resulting
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are the S1 progeny.
A "full sib" cross is a straight male-female cross between brothers and sisters.
A "half sib" cross uses sister females and unrelated males.
 
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Uncle Ben's pollination method
You have several choices for collecting and using pollen. Males will show as a football-like "ball" on a small, short petiole (stem) at the node sites. Once the pollen pods form, they will elongate via a stem, droop, and the flower bracts will open. After about one week after pollen pods first start to form, or upon complete opening of the male flower bracts, the male anther's will shed pollen which will appear as pale, yellow dust.
Males do not take much light to survive once they reach flowering stage. Leave your male plant(s) in the grow room until the first male pollen bracts just begin to crack, and then move 'em into another room with a typical 12/12 schedule, this can be simulated with light thru a window or a fluorescent light fixture.
You have a choice of placing this plant in a very quiet room with no air movement, set on clean paper, or, you can cut the branches off, making a clean slanted cut with a razor blade, and place the branches in a vase of water over paper. Collect the pollen once it begins shedding by placing a glazed ceramic plate or paper plate under the flowers and gently tap the individual branches. Pick out any flowers which tend to drop once in a while.
The pollen will be like dust, so don't visit the garden until you have taken a bath, or you may end up pollinating plants you didn't intend on pollinating.
Collect the pollen over time and place it into a clean vial like a film canister. I really like using a paper plate held under a group of flowers, and then gently thumping the stem. After collecting the pollen, the paper plate can be creased, held over a vial, and the sides and edges thumped until all the pollen is shaken into the vial. Shape the paper plate like a creased funnel.
For a pollen carrier, heat about 2 or 3 teaspoons of flour in an oven set to 180f for 20 minutes or in a small pot set on low heat, let it cool thoroughly, and mix with the pollen to dilute it. I use a ratio of about 1/4 teaspoon pollen to 3 teaspoon flour and have very successful pollination rates. Store in small containers like contact lens cases or film canister, excluding as much air as possible and store in the refrigerator for long term use. Remember, it only takes one male to fertilize one female ovule, and there are millions of pollen cells in a 1/4 teaspoon of pollen so be sure and dilute it.
Use a small artist brush (my preferred method) or toothpick to pollinate a few of the lower branches which have fresh, white pistils, label the pollinated branches, and harvest your
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in 3 to 6 weeks. I just cure the seeded branches with the rest of the crop, and tear apart the seeded buds with my fingers. You'll find the
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close to the stem. Store the
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in the fridge or freezer, labeled of course, with a little dessicant like silica gel or heat treated (sterilized) rice for long term storage.
What is an F1, F2, and IBL?

An IBL (inbred line) is a genetically homogeneous strain that grows uniformly from seed.

A hybrid is a strain made up of two genetically unlike parents, IBL or hybrid.

When you cross two different IBL strains for the FIRST time, it is called the F1 generation. When you cross two of the same F1 hybrid (inbreed), it is called the F2 generation.

The process of selective inbreeding must continue at least until the F4 to stabilize the recurrently selected traits. When you cross two specimens of an IBL variety, you get more of the same, because an IBL is homozygous, or true breeding for particular traits. How should strains be named?

In the horticultural world, the order of naming in hybrids should be Female X Male. Many breeders and retailers practice improper naming protocol. I have seen too many obvious discrepencies in commercial Cannabis naming practices to give any validity to the standard protocol as a way to determine the parentage. Breeders and retailers should correct this.

When choosing a name for your prize breeding project, it is important to be original and not be confusing. Unfortunately, some seed breeders are using names for their newer and different offerings already taken by strains currently held by other seedbanks. This is definitely something that is deceptive and troublesome. Introducing a different strain under another, now famous name appears to be an attempt to ride on their coattails. It is terribly confusing and misleading to the consumer for another company in the same market to decide to use the same name for a newer and different product. What if VW decided their new sports car was going to be called a Corvette because they are based in Europe and they like the name? They have lawyers for this.
How do I select for combining ability?
The ONLY way to select for combining ability is to test for it.
Even though there is a positive relation between overall vigour of an inbred and the yield of its crosses, the combining ability is more important. The breeding value of a certain hybrid is determined by studying it's progeny.
Making an inbred-to-varietal cross (
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) is one way. Cross the various lines to a stable variety (Skunk no.1, Northern Lights, etc.) and the progeny that produces the best crosses is selected. Repeating the test in different locations will eliminate any possible influences the environment might produce, and repeating the test with different testers would ensure that the results were accurate.

Does it matter which line is used for the male?
No. Some growers swear that certain plants do better as one parent or the other, but it really doesn't matter as yield and quality are due to that particular cross and remain the same whenever that cross is repeated. Genetically the siblings in an IBL are the same no matter which gender is used.
 
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What should I look for in an IBL?
First define your goals. Are you growing for yourself or for commercial production? Indoors or out? Mostly sativa or mostly indica? Keep only the plants that have the qualities you want, and mercilessly kill the rest.
Select plants that don't fall over; if you have to prop them up with toothpicks, you might as well cull them. Keep the ones that are free from abnormalities and hermaphroditism. Hopefully you've got enough many
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to be ruthless. Keep the ones that show better resistance to disease and pests. Even though the progeny performance is more important than the individual, there is a positive relationship between the overall vigour of an IBL and the yield of its hybrids. If they produce vigourous plants they are more likely to pass these traits on.

What is recurrent selection?
Recurrent selection refers to selecting for certain traits generation after generation.

With the interbreeding of reselected plants, the breeder can access favorable
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as well as stabilize traits within the genepool. Select your
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in each IBL, but don't be totally reliant on the phenotype because its not always indicative of the actual genotype. Make yield and quality trials with test crosses and select the best ten lines. Intercross and repeat.

After recurrent selection is done, select new individuals to be the new parents of IBLs. These are then recurrently selected for four or five generations. After recurrent selection has been done in two seperate programs, an F1 single cross of the two lines (A X B) is then produced.

In reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS), pollen of multiple A males is used to pollinate ideal B females and pollen of B used to pollinate ideal plants of A. Thus A is used as a tester to select for the
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of B plants, and B is a tester for A. At the same time,inbred seedlots(A X A) and (B X B) are made,using mixed male pollen and the best females of each population. Store the resulting seed-- the seedlines with the best combining ability will be used as parents of the next RRS cycle.

The (A X B) hybrid progeny are simply used as visual indicators of the combining ability that lies in the saved
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.These specific inbred parental lines are kept in reserve until the
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of the different (A X B) hybrids has shown which has better
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and will make the better hybrids. Since this is such a complicated strategy, good note taking and organization are definitely required.
 
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What is the difference between an F1 and a hybrid?
Contributed by Vic High:

What really is an F1 cross?

Well defining the terms P1, F1, F2, homozygous, and heterogygous can be a simple task, however, applying them to applied genetics can often create confusion. Depending on your point of reference, a plant could be described as any of these terms. For our specific field of interest it's important to further define these terms to reduce confusion and protect the consumers. First I'll provide the classic scientific definition of these and other related terms and then I'll dive into each term into detail.

Heterzygous - a condition when two genes for a trait are not the same on each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes; individuals heterozygous for a trait are indicated by an "Aa" or "aA" notation and are not true breeding for that trait.(Clarke)

Homozygous - the condition existing when the genes for a trait are the same on both chromosomes of a homologous pair; individuals homozygous for a trait are indicated by "AA" or "aa" and are true breeding for that trait. (Clarke)

- Now the heterozygous and homozygous terms can be applied to one trait or a group of traits within an individual or a group of individuals. Depending on your point of reference, an individual or group can be
considered both homozygous or heterozygous. For instance, say you have two individuals that are both short (S) and have webbed leaves (W) and have the following genotypes.

#1 = SSWW
#2 = SSWw

They are both homozygous for the short trait but only individual #1 is homozygous for the webbed leaf trait. Individual #2 is heterozygous for the webbed leaf trait and would be considered a heterozygous individual. As a goup, they would be considered heterozygous in general by some and homozygous by others. It would depend on your point of reference and the overall importance you place on the webbed leaf trait. Most would consider it to be heterozygous.

For example, the blueberry cannabis strain is considered a true breeding homozygous seed line because as a whole the many offspring have a similar look and produce a similar product. However there are often subtle differences between the plants of characters such as stem colour and potency. When taking a close look at blueberry, you will find heterozygous traits, but because of the whole overall look, we still generally consider them homozygous for the purpose of breeding programs. Using dogs is another way to explain this, take a dobie for example, you cant tell the difference between dobies, but you can tell a dobie from another breed. Ya follow?

Hybrid - An individual produced by crossing two parents of different genotypes. Clarke says that a hybrid is a heterozygous individual resulting from crossing two seperate strains.

- For the purpose of seedbanks, a hybrid is in general, a cross between any two unrelated seedlines. ANY HYBRID IS heterozygous and NOT TRUE BREEDING.

F1 hybrid - is the first generation of a cross between any two unrelated seedlines in the creation of a hybrid. F1 hybrids can be uniform or variable depending on the P1 parent stock used.

F2 hybrid - is the offspring of a cross between two F1 plants (Clarke). What Clarke and other sources don't make clear is do the two F1's need to be from the same parents? By convention they don't. As well, german geneticists often describe a backcross of an F1 back to a P1 parent as a F2 cross.

- OK lets say we take blueberry and cross it with romulan (both relatively true breeding of their unique traits) to create the F1 hybrid romberry. Now lets cross the F1 romberry with a NL/Haze F1 hybrid. (Ed.note:The textbooks consider this a 'double cross'.)

Some could say this is a F1 cross of romberry and NL/Haze. Others could argue that it is a F2 cross of two F1 hybrids. Gets confusing doesn't it? Now lets cross this Romberry/NL/Haze(RNH) with a Skunk#1/NL#5 F1 hybrid to create RNHSN. Now some would argue that RNHSN is an F1 hybrid between RNH and SK/NL seedlines. Others would call it an F2.

- So what does this mean to the consumer? It means that a
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can call a cross whatever it wants until the industry adopts some standards. This is what this article will attempt to initiate. Clarke eludes to
standardising these definitions but never really gets around to it. Fortunately other plant breeding communities have (Colangelli, Grossnickle&Russell, Watts, &Wright) and adopting their standards
makes the most sense and offers the best protection to the seedbank consumer.

Watts defines an F1 as the heterozygous offspring between two homozygous but unrelated seedlines. This makes sense and gives the F1 generation a unique combination of traits; uniform phenotype but not true breeding. This is important in the plant breeding world. This means that when a customer buys F1
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that they should expect uniform results. It also means that the breeder's work is protected from being duplicated by any other means than using the original P1 (true breeding parents). [There are
exceptions to this by using techniques such as repeated backcrosses
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.

F2 crosses are the offspring of crossing two F1 hybrids. This means that they will not be uniform nor will they breed true. However, F3, F4, F5, etc will also share these characteristics, so to simplify terminology for the seedbanks and seedbank merchants, they can all be classified as F2
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in general.

What does this mean for the preceeding example? Well, the blueberry, romulan, skunk#1, NL#5, and haze were all P1 true breeding seedlines or strains (another term that needs clarification). Romberry, NL/Haze, and SK/NL were all F1 hybrids. Both the Romberry/NL/Haze and the RNHSN would be F2s. Within each group the consumer can know what to expect for the price they are paying.

Few cannabis seedbanks (if any) and their breeders are following these definitions and are subsequently creating confusion within the cannabis seedbuying community. This is a change that needs to happen.

Note: this is a rough draft to be published to the internet. Hopefully in time it or something similar will be used to help establish an industry standard. Any comments and critism is welcome to aid in the production of the final draft. Small steps like this can only benefit the cannabis community over the long haul.
 

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guys... i need to apologize too :) same mistake as haze... didnt see this was posted in english subforum :) :costumed-smiley-027
anyway, someone should translate this and open a topic in growing subforum... so its available to our language growers as well!!!
apologies once more :) stay safe !

peace out !
 
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Superstrpljiva neurotichna konsultantica
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12.05.2012
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My Cataloguing System

c. 2004 DJ Short

Perhaps one of the most useful devices used in a quality cannabis breeding project is that of catalogue techniques. This refers to the method used to categorize various traits for future reference, or how to best label traits from a given population. It is also a means to track who came from where (generational references).

First and foremost, I cannot begin to describe the level of complexity involved with a breeding project that extends from the f-2 to the f-5 range. It took me over a decade and a half of trial and much error to fully comprehend and develop a system that actually works to this level and beyond. It starts out simple enough, until the f-2's, then the complexity expands exponentially with each generation.

The P-1's are simple enough, they are the original breed-stock and labeled for what they are, i.e. Highland, Purple or Chocolate Thai, Oaxacan or Santa Marta Gold, Pure Afghan, etc. The f-1's were equally simple as they were of uniform expressions and I simply chose to label them “The Cross”. The f-2 generation was equally easy to identify with the label “Double Cross”, or the progeny of the f-1 cross. However, when the f-2's were grown out, extreme diversity ruled the making of the f-3's (or the descriptions of the f-2's selected to breed further with) a tougher call to make.

It is at this level (and beyond) that some form of labeling system becomes necessary to catalogue all of the different variations found. Beginning with the plants grown out from the f-2 seeds I chose to utilize an alphabetized system with each letter corresponding to a specific trait. For example, the letter “B” came to signify the “Berry” characteristic, “F” stands for “Fruity” (sometimes “Floral“), “G” is for Grape, “C” for Citrus, “O” for orange, “L” for lemon or lime, “K” equaled “Kush”, “S” for “Sativa” “P” for Purple, “X” for extreme glandular trichome production, etc.

I must confess that it took much trial and error to finally get it right. Therefore, if one were to look at my early notes many exceptions to what developed as “the rule” can be found. I left these early “mistakes” as they were so as not to over-complicate what came next. It is also very important to note that most of these observations were relatively subjective and that no more than two traits, or characteristics were ever assigned to any one plant. Therefore, the label “BK” came to stand for “Berry Kush”, or a Kush dominant plant with outstanding berry attributes. It is also important to note that only the most outstanding plant of any given attribute was selected for future work. So the plant that ended up with the “BK” label was the most Berry-Kush of the lot.

So, my f-3 stock became labeled with a two-letter code indicating what the most outstanding characteristics of it’s parent (primarily mother) were, and only those with the strongest expressions earned their label. When the f-3's were grown out and crossed to make the f-4 generation, these labels were coupled to indicate the parents of the f-4 progeny, i.e. BK/FS would be a cross between an f-3 Berry-Kush mother (I always list the female first, male second with a back-slash in between) and an f-3 Fruity Sativa father.

F-4's and Beyond
Consider the label number: 4/5 3 96-2. This is the type of numbering symbol I use to label F-4 and beyond plants. Before we dissect this number I need to point out a few rules that I follow in a breeding project beyond the F-4 generation.

First, I only grow out no more than six varieties at any single time. The reason is to avoid too much confusion. Six is about the maximum number of varieties an individual can realistically keep track of. These six (or five, or four etc.) varieties are then labeled as “1" through “6" (or the number of varieties used). Let’s say the 6 f-3's I use are: 1. “FK/FK”, 2. “BK/PK”, 3. “FK/FL”, 4. “GK/GK”, 5. “PK/FP” and 6. “XP/FK”. Notes are made to record this fact and the seeds are then sprouted and grown using these simple, single digit identification numbers (1 through 6 in this example).

Second, I select only one male from any single breeding project. Again, this simplifies things and avoids mistakes enormously. That male is generally selected at about the third week in the flowering cycle, unless it is a clone from another project. After the single male is selected the other males are removed and the remaining females are numbered according to their variety category (i.e. if there are seven #1. females, five #2 females, etc. they are labeled #1–1 through 7, #2–1 through 5, etc.) The male simply retains the number from its variety label, in our above example the number “5" (in the 4/5), or the “PK/FP” male.

Now we may examine the above example: 4/5 3 96-2. The first two numbers, “4/5" are the variety number of the female first and male second. So in this case that would be: a “GK/GK” female crossed with the “PK/FP” male. The third number in our example, “3" means female #3 from the #4 (“GK/GK”) batch. The next number in the example, “96" is merely the year and the final number is the crop number for that year. So, translated, the number 4/5 3 96-2 is the third “GK/GK” (or #4) female crossed with the “PK/FP” (or #5) male grown from the second crop of 1996.

Please note that the “/5” male-used indicator will be /5 for all of the seeds labeled from this batch as the #5 (“PK/FP”) male is the only one used. If a male clone from a past crop is used it may be indicated by using the #7 in the initial notes (if six varieties are sprouted) and described as the male-clone-used in the #7 description. Likewise, if any of the six varieties tested are from a past clone (female), they may be selected as one of the #1 through #6 varieties, labeled and described accordingly.

It seems complex at first, but I assure you that it works great. The same system is used for the F-5 generation, and beyond. The system merely requires that dated notes be kept and catalogued. That way, any crosses may be backtracked and referenced via one’s notes and a simple, six or seven digit code is all that is needed to label and catalogue one’s plants.

Finally, this system works best for forward crosses mainly. Backcrosses will need another connotation to note their use . The “clone-used” labeling described prior works well for backcrosses involving clones.

This system is good for only one grow out at a time. If multiple grows, or facilities are used then they will need to be noted as well, perhaps with a lettered “A”, “B”, “C” etc. appended onto the catalogue number. Also, detailed notes of each individual plant are necessary to fully utilize any cataloguing system and are obviously required for success. Other than that, I have found this to be a relatively simple and foolproof system for cataloguing one’s breeding projects beyond the f-3 generation.
 
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Background, Review and DJ’s Law
Remember; all of my seed-stock came from the cross of two distinctly different P1 parents with the mother being of pure, land-race sativa origin and the father being a pure indica. This cross produced a very uniform line I’ve referred to as “The Cross”, or f1 generation. When “The Cross” was bred with itself (dubbed “Double Cross” at the time) the resulting variance was phenomenal in the f2 generation expressions. Beginning with this f2 generation, intense scrutiny and application of the selection rules and laws come into play. The bulk of the variation from this f2 generation were primarily discovered in the 1980's.

I must comment here that the variation witnessed from this f2 cross, and subsequent crosses, was truly amazing in its complexity of variance. I also need to mention the fact that, as far as “the number’s game” is concerned (selecting from as large a population as possible), this f2, and to some degree the f3 generations are the most relevant. That is, the larger the number of f2's and f3's sprouted, the greater the degree of variance that is witnessed. It is from the f3 and beyond generations that specific traits are bred for and stabilized. Once a specific trait is recognized, the numbers necessary for success diminish with each generation successfully crossed toward the desired traits. In simple terms; the more f2's and f3's sprouted for examination the better. However, once a specific trait presents itself and is chosen for future work and appears to breed true through subsequent generation, the less f4's, f5's etc. that are needed to witness the desired results.

There is one very simple rule that I feel is primary when considering one’s involvement in a quality cannabis breeding project, or when applying Luther Burbank’s law (“Select the best and reject all others.”). It is an extension of Luther Burbank’s Law that I will refer to as:

DJ’s Law of Quality Cannabis Breeding.
“The progeny must equal or surpass its parent in overall quality and desirability to be considered for future breeding.”
That is, if the progeny is not as good as the bud it came from, it is rejected from further breeding. The finished product from the grown seed does not need to be exactly like the bud or parent from which it came. A good example is from the land-race Thai and the plants grown from its seed. The plants grown from the land-race Thai seed, especially produced indoors, were not much like the imported Thai from which it came (primarily due in this case to very different growing environments and curing techniques). It was, however, very equal, and in some instances superior to the buds from which it came and therefore worthy of consideration.

On the other hand, I have not had much luck in equaling the effects of certain tropical Island herbs such as Hawaiian or Jamaican indoors, and therefore these offerings never made the grade. For the record, the majority of land-race varieties grown out prove to fail DJ’s law, IMHO. Very few end up being of significant value or worthy of future consideration. But DJ’s law also applies to the selection of the f2's, f3's and beyond.

I realize that it is sometimes impossible in the current seed market to be able to sample a true example of the bud (parent) of the seed one purchases. Sometimes these varieties are commercially available in places such as a Dutch coffee shop, but one is never really certain if the bud one is purchasing (or the seed for that matter) is the real deal. This is perhaps one of the main flaws in the current seed market–reliability. Given this situation, the seed buyer and breeder will need to employ Luther Burbank’s Law first, and DJ’s Law after a parent is created for testing.

A Word About Mutagens
I am aware of concerns involving mutagens such as colchicine and their possible use on cannabis plants. Colchicine is a chemical that when applied to seeds or sprouts can cause extreme genetic mutations in future generations of the seeds that survive the treatment (often less that 1%). For the record let me state that I have never used colchicine, or any other mutagen, in my breeding work . All of my selections are from organically produced crops. I do have my suspicions, however, primarily concerning some of the Thai strains that I have used.

I am not certain, but I suspect that the Highland and Chocolate Thai may have been the results of a mutagenic regimen. The reasons I make the speculation is due to observations witnessed in the growing cycle of the Highland and Chocolate Thai and their progeny. Both were extremely “freakish” in some of their expressions, as were a number of subsequent generations. These freakish anomalies are similar to many of the abnormalities documented by mutagenic experiments published in journals such as High Times and Cannabis Culture. These abnormalities include asymmetric growth patterns, “albino” mutations that affect parts of the plant such as half of a leaf, various polyploid expressions and mild to extreme leaf mutations. I am very interested to learn about any first hand experience anyone may have had in this capacity. Having said that, one of the most important aspects to consider in regard to a breeding regimen is that of ratios.

Ratios
The math for this selection process involves watching the ratios of desirable plants from f2 to f3 and beyond generations. The ratio of plants exhibiting a specifically desired trait from the f2 generation may be 1:20 or 1:50 or 1:100 or even as high as 1:1000 (approximate ratios). Once obtained and selected, however, and crossed to the correct pollen source, this ratio will equate more and more per each successful generational cross. This is another indicator of which individuals actually breed true for the specific desired trait(s). Therefore, if the ratio of plants with desired traits presents itself in an approximate 1:100 ratio in the f2 generation, and successful crosses are made, this ratio should diminish to between 1:50 to 1:20 for the same desired trait in the f3 generation. If the cross remains successful, the ratio will diminish to anywhere from 1:10 to an absolute IBL (In-Bred Line) beyond the f4 cross of 1:2 (or 1:1 barring male sexual exclusion, i.e. the ratio among the female plants only).

It is important to note that any 1:2 (1:1 female) IBL ratio is generally for a very specific, singular trait. When considering combinations of traits, the best obtainable ratio I have found is between 1:5 to approximately 1:10, depending on the number of desired traits sought. Please note that these ratio numbers are approximate and the true numbers may be closer to the powers of two such as 1:8, 1:16, 1:32 etc. It also needs to be noted that my ratios relate to total number of seeds sprouted and not just the number of female plants.

Therefore, if I sprout 100 f2 seeds and find one female plant with any number of desirable qualities, and I successfully find a male f2 pollen donor to cross with, and the ratio of these same desirable plants in the f3 generation becomes at least 1:50 (preferably 1:30 or better) then I consider myself on the right track and proceed from there. If a subsequent cross of the f3's provides a ratio of desirability in the f4's of 1:20 (or closer), I am definitely on the right track. In essence these are the (general) numbers I look for in the early breeding trials. Suffice it to say that my informal observations have proven true enough for me to be able to judge desirable results with adequate success, despite the approximations.

Suffice it also to say that I have a large collection of f3's and f4's and beyond that merit further investigation. These f4's (and some f3's and f5's) are the primary source for all future breeding work along the lines established by the ratios of plants with the desirable traits expressed therein.
 
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Superstrpljiva neurotichna konsultantica
Poznanik Foruma
12.05.2012
1.030
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188
A Word About Anomalies
Anomalies, individuals that are markedly different from the general phenotypic expression of a given variety, are rare, but occur with a near predictable ratio. Beyond the f-3 generation (and from my personal seed-stock) anomalies present themselves at the ratio of approximately 1:100. Because there are both positive (desirable) and negative (non-desirable) anomalies, the overall ratio of positive (desirable) anomalies is probably somewhere in the neighborhood of approx. 1:200. Desirable anomalies are very valuable to cannabis breeding providing that they are viable. So always keep an eye out for desirable anomalies and put sufficient energy into their reproduction. More often than not however, anomalies can be very finicky and therefore difficult to work with

Past Selection Processes Review
Originally, in the late 1970's, I was growing up to 100 plants at a time using over 1000 watts of light, and also outdoors in a backyard garden space. These were all land race sativa that fortunately cloned well. The ratio of highly desirable individuals from these plants was about 1:100. One of the most annoying traits of these varieties was hermaphroditism. Approximately 60% of all of these plants from seed were unmanageable hermis, and about 25% more were what I referred to as manageable hermaphrodites, meaning that with close observation and intense scrutiny the male pods could be seen and eliminated as they appeared. About 15% of these sativa plants were female enough to produce marketable sinsimilla bud, with a constant vigilance toward the occasional stray pollen sack. In other words the hermaphroditism expressed in these equatorial sativa was extreme and nearly total.

A quick word about the virtues of hermaphrodites: Ask any old-time herbalist, one who has been experiencing fine herb since at least the early 1970's, what their favorite all-time herbal variety was, and the answer will be something to the effect of; “Santa Marta or Acapulco Gold” or “Highland or Chocolate Thai” or “Punta Roya (red-tipped gold Highland Oaxacan)” or “Guerran Green” or “Panama Red” etc. et. al., all of which were equatorial, or sub-tropical, origin sativa and hermaphroditic. Even the great hashish of the era such as Lebanese Red and Blonde, all Moroccan and Nepalese were produced from seeded stock.

This is not so much in praise of the hermaphrodite as it is a suggestion in regard to the cannabinoid profile of seeded verses non-seeded herb. It has been my experience that the cannabinoid profile of seeded herb produces a wider range of effect than from non-seeded, or sinsimilla, herb. The equatorial environment also probably contributed to a wider range of cannabinoids. One of the aspects of the equatorial environment is its consistent day/night temperature range, there is little difference between day and night temps on the equator supposedly inspiring a wider cannabinoid profile. Couple this with the seeded cannabinoid profile and it becomes easy to understand the popularity of the equatorial produced sativa, despite its hermaphroditic problems. I am curios as to what future research in this capacity may provide.

Once the indica was introduced into the mix the hermaphrodite “problem” became controllable. It only takes a few zero-tolerance generations indoors to fully eliminate hermaphroditic tendencies. As a matter of fact, this, coupled with shortening the flowering cycle, became the first main concerns of the indoor or commercial horticulturist. This unbalanced focus may be the strongest contributing factor to the “blandness” of much of the herb to follow. The author “R” did a cover piece for High Times magazine in the mid-1980's calling for a “Ban the Bud” campaign, against the indica onslought, due to how bad and bland the quality of some herb was becoming then. I remember the times clearly.

During this period I was beginning to venture out into larger satellite grows (indoor and out) that kicked my selection numbers up to around 1000 plants at a time for awhile. It was from these trials that I was able to do the bulk of my f2 experimentation and selections. I worked with these numbers for enough trials to manipulate and witness the phenomenon of quality production to a high degree of certainty. Once I was certain how to produce the f3's, the f4's and beyond became much easier to produce.

During the late 1980's, and due to the harsh political realities of the times, the high numbers game became too dangerous. The war on some drugs and spooky ops such as Operation Green Merchant forced my experimentation deep underground. Fortunately, the lessons learned prior proved fruitful and progress was possible despite the political weather. I had already learned to produce f3 and f4 Blueberry (et. al.). However, doing so with diminished numbers actually helped boost my learning curve. Between 1987 to 1990 I was able to do so using less than 100 plants from seed at a time. And by 1991 I was able to do adequate selection work from past produced stock using less than 50 plants (seeds) at a time.

Europe
Holland

By the early 1990's I was extremely interested in the burgeoning seed market developing in Holland. I had known about the seed banks since 1983 and was always only interested in obtaining more pure, land-race varieties. Unfortunately, there were only hybrid crosses ever available at the time and I had more than enough of my own to work with. By 1993 I finally made the pilgrimage to Amsterdam where I made new connections. In 1994 I connected with the first company that I worked with in Europe. By 1995 I was supplying this company with seed-stock both for sale and for breed work. I had contracted with this company to produce Blueberry, Flo and Blue Velvet.

The first company I worked with in Europe sprouted only 25 seeds of each of these varieties to make selections from. Other than supplying seed-stock, I was only minimally involved in the selection process. I did get to see the mother and father plants alive, however, the selection process had already been done prior by others. Unfortunately, my relationship with this company was short-lived as all the owner really wanted was my seed-stock. Once he had it I became a very low priority in his scheme. In all honesty I was never paid one red cent for any of the Blueberry (or “Flow” or Blue Velvet) that company number one in Europe produced (plus having over 3,000 seeds that I produced completely ripped off).

Needless to say this lack of concern prompted me to seek other possibilities that culminated in my relationship with the second company I worked with in Europe. At this company about 50 seeds of each variety were sprouted, but I was once again mainly left out of the selection process except for sampling a number of finished products and making selections based on those (which is enough, actually). I never got to see any of the live plants from this selection process at company number two in Europe. I also contributed seed-stock for three more varieties there; Blue Moonshine, Blue Heaven and Purple Passion. The owner of this company was satisfied with paying me the minimum amount I would consider adequate. Fortunately, part of the deal was my ability to remain independent and work with whomever else I pleased.

Switzerland
The third company I worked with in Europe was in Switzerland. The owner of this company was able to dramatically push the envelope there and some interesting results blossomed. I visited Switzerland three times between 1999 and 2001 and was truly amazed at what I witnessed on each visit. Out of all of the companies that I worked with in Europe, I felt the most involved and productive in Switzerland. I was involved with selections of finished products and with live mother and father plants as well. I even got to help plant, transplant and harvest a few of the gems produced there.

The varieties produced by the third company that I worked with in Europe included Moonshine Rocket Fuel, Rosebud and Blue Satellite. I must admit that the bubble hash from the Blue Satellite is among the finest and most desirable product I have sampled (outside of my own) since the 1980's! Unfortunately, the owner of this company was unable to successfully work with the local authorities and was forced to leave Switzerland. Some truly intrepid tales were spun during the brief stay there and I will remember many of them with delight.
 
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Canada, The True North Strong and Free
With glimmers of hope on the horizon, Canada is fast becoming the Cannabis Breeding capital of the world. With the much-appreciated activism of entrepreneurs such as Marc Emery (et. al.), a new haven for a seriously dedicated cannabis community is developing. One such entrepreneurial dedicate is Red of Legends Seeds. I met Red in Switzerland where he was very busy and involved working for the happening community there. Red is a high-flying, free spirit with a savvy sense of taste.

Red was able to orchestrate the necessary requirements to produce a very large selection process. This grow consisted of about 400 plants (over 200 Blueberry phenos and over 100 Flo). Out of these there ended up being over 160 Blueberry and over 70 Flo females and about 60 males that made the initial cut. Copies of each of these were cloned and meticulously maintained by the crew. This actually turned out to be a slight overkill, but a testimony to the absolute dedication of the crew.

The Crew
Mighty-G is a green-thumbed master gardener whose success with cannabis is phenomenal. Mr. G was able to provide and maintain a near-perfect growing environment for a lengthy period of time as the plants were kept in an extended vegetive state to insure 100% clone success. The plants were absolutely beautiful. Kermit was in charge of clone reproduction and maintenance. Kermit has been a respected part of the local cannabis community for many years. Chimera appeared online a few years ago and has proven himself to be an intelligent and dedicated soul, along with being a focused horticulturist with excellent credentials in the field of genetics. I first learned of Chimera online where he posted to a few message boards that I occasionally lurk and I appreciated the information he shared. The Cannabis Cowboy also added his expertise, especially considering the collection, purification and pressing of the dry-sieved resin.

I just want to give a big “shout out” and a huge thank you to all of the crew for their very successful efforts on this project. You cats rock! Thank you.

The Process
The main room was divided in two with the Blueberry on the left and the Flo on the right. The plants were relatively huge considering how long they’d been in veg. Lush growth dominated as three distinct Blueberry phenotypes and two distinct Flo presented their development, along with a small number of unique anomalies. Of course, all individuals were numbered and labeled and notes were made over the course of several inspections during the flowering cycle.

During this period all of the males were isolated in a separate room and watched closely to enable the best selection from them. From this particular gene-pool, I find it relatively easy to select the best males as they tend to express their traits regardless of environment or light cycle. There were so many to choose from during this process that the difficulty became who to cull out. Most of the males were at least to some degree resinous with glandular stalked trichome, some more than others. This usually makes it easy to test certain profiles such as overall flavors.

Only after the most desirable males are selected (i.e. all the others rejected) are issues of structure and growth pattern considered. Sweet, fruity and floral expressions are most desirable, but attention is paid to other possibilities as well. Top quality candidates of indica, sativa and mutant anomaly are picked by process of elimination. Then those with the best structure; hollow stems, good color and flower density, become the final candidates.

The females also pose the same problem in regard to who is eliminated. Notes are made as to any outstanding qualifications that present themselves during the bud cycle. But it is not until the sixth week in flower, and sometimes not until the eighth week (or longer if the variety is strongly sativa), that the real differences in individuals becomes apparent and the truly amazing qualities shine. And even then, it only amounts to field-notes until well after harvest and the cut-and-dried product is totally cured. It is then that the final selection process begins.

During our selection-crop numerous individuals could have passed the requirements to be a great mother plant. By and large, the overall ratio of desirable plants that qualified for final selection from this crop was approximately 1:10 (employing DJ’s Law). As it turns out the elite ratio of final candidates turned out to be approximately 1:30–the best of the best as it were. By the eighth week in bud approximately two dozen individuals stood out as primary candidates. After these samples were individually labeled and jar cured for about two months, a total of eleven were of supreme quality. Believe it or not, the final elimination process among these eleven was perhaps the most difficult to complete. Part of the sprocess involved selecting one of each of the three Blueberry phenotypes, one of the Flo, one Blue Moonshine and deciding on the possibility of something new.

The Varieties
After the fourth week in bud, generally speaking, certain characteristics become apparent. On the Blueberry side of the room three distinct phenotypes presented themselves, while on the flo side two less distinct phenos appeared. The three Blueberry phenotypes could be referred to as indica, sativa and variegated or mutated. The indica were shorter, denser and had larger calyx and bract leafs making the buds look plump. The sativa were taller, more slender leafed with more elongated buds of dense, smaller calyx. The indica tended to be of a stronger, more musky odor where the sativa were more delicate and floral. The variegated or mutated individuals varied more in their aromatic palate with some seeming more potent than others. On the flo side the difference was less pronounced between phenotypes but two distinct types developed. The primary difference was in bud structure and formation with one type growing with its bract leaves pointing more up and the other with its bract leaves pointing down. Both were more sativa looking with dense buds of small calyx. There was also a difference in potency of aroma between these individuals.

The seed stock “True Blueberry” currently under scrutiny derived from f2’s that were very “BK” or Berry Kush-like. These f2 “BK”’s were crossed with very “TF”, or “True Floral”, sometimes referred to as “Temple Flo”, mates in the f3 and/or f4 generation to brighten the head considerably. Once the right mix was discovered these f4’s (and beyond) crosses were inline bred (filial crossed) to stabilize the proper traits. The “flo” pheno’s are closer to the “TF” (“True Floral”, “Temple Flo”), headier side of the mix, most reminiscent of the Highland Oaxaca Gold.
 
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“Grape Krush” (or “Blue Krush”)–a productive, deep-colored hybrid of very high quality. This plants exhibits partial to full leaf-deformities of the “krinkle” type, but with good structure and heavy bud production of large calyxes. The buds express a strong sharp/fruity odor with a distinct sweet/grape flavor brought out in the cure. A strong, long-lasting head/body mix is evident in the finished product with an exciting, but not “racy”, head and a mild narcotic body. Very euphoric and desirable effects that most seasoned connoisseurs prefer. 50-60 day flowering time.

“Flodica” – a mostly indica phenotype from the flo line. A rare, near-total recessive indica found by chance in the “TF” line (“TF”= “Temple Flo” or “True Floral”). Generally, the flo line sports very sativa like structures of taller plants with slender leaves and spear-shaped buds. The “Flodica”, however, is a near-pure indica phenotype of short, stout, yet productive, structure with very large, dense, dark indica buds. Very resinous with heavy gland production of an earthen palate to the buds that produce a very strong, narcotic-type experience. 50-55 day flowering time. Unfortunately, the “Flodica” (and the “True Blue Moonshine”) were nearly sterile--i.e. no (or very few) seeds developed, and were therefore culled.

“True Blueberry”–the ultimate hybrid of Blueberry expression. Selected for its superior quality from a large pool, this hybrid contains the best from both worlds (indica and sativa). Medium height with long, fruity and productive buds of medium sized calyxes. Beautiful lavender hues become apparent soon into the flowering cycle. The finished product is of the highest quality with sweet, elongated Blueberry buds destined to please the most finicky palate. High resin production as expected from the “Blue” family. 50-60 days flowering time.

“True Blue Moonshine”–a true “hash-plant”. Selected for its outstanding production of large, clear gland heads, this mostly-indica hybrid really packs a musky/fruity punch. Medium height producing parge, dense buds glistening with trichomes. More musky than fruity with a burgundy/earthen flavor at cure. Top-notch Moonshine. 50-60 days flowering time.

“F-13"–a Holy Grail plant of four-star excellence. Previously unreleased, a very desirable product and potential breeder. A more-sativa hybrid of medium height with long, spear-shaped, dense and resinous buds and an earlier finish time than most sativa. The superfluous quality of the finished product is remarkable: a clear, clean, crisp head of the kindest order with a sweet/floral flavor. This girl really rings the bell every time! Not for the couch-lock crowd, this heady sativa is for those who truly enjoy its stimulating yet comfortable appeal. A real day (or night) brightener. My personal favorite from this batch. 50-65 days flowering time.

Stay tuned for future re-releases of Velvet Luna (formerly Blue Satellite and Blueberry Sativa), Moonshine Rocket Fuel and Rosebud in the not-too-distant future. Have fun and best regards toward your horticultural ventures. Enjoy!